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A Combat Effectiveness Evaluation Algorithm Considering Technical and Human Factors in C4I System
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Whan-Sik Jung (Department of Operations Research, Korea National Defense University)
Gun-Woo Park (Department of Defense Information Systems, Korea National Defense University)
Jae-Yeong Lee (Department of Operations Research, Korea National Defense University)
Sang-Hoon Lee (Department of Defense Information Systems, Korea National Defense University)
Vol. 16, No. 2, Page: 55 ~ 72
Keywords
Combat Effectiveness, Technical Factors, Human Factors, C2 Theory, Newton's Second Law, E-TechMan algorithm
Abstract
Recently, the battlefield environment has changed from platform-centric warfare(PCW) which focuses on maneuvering forces into network-centric warfare(NCW) which is based on the connectivity of each asset through the warfare information system as information technology increases. In particular, C4I(Command, Control, Communication, Computer and Intelligence) system can be an important factor in achieving NCW. It is generally used to provide direction across distributed forces and status feedback from thoseforces. It can provide the important information, more quickly and in the correct format to the friendly units. And it can achieve the information superiority through SA(Situational Awareness). Most of the advanced countries have been developed and already applied these systems in military operations. Therefore, ROK forces also have been developing C4I systems such as KJCCS(Korea Joint Command Control System). And, ours are increasing the budgets in the establishment of warfare information systems. However, it is difficult to evaluate the C4I effectiveness properly by deficiency of methods. We need to develop a new combat effectiveness evaluation method that is suitable for NCW. Existing evaluation methods lay disproportionate emphasis on technical factors with leaving something to be desired in human factors. Therefore, it is necessary to consider technical and human factors to evaluate combat effectiveness. In this study, we proposed a new Combat Effectiveness evaluation algorithm called E-TechMan(A Combat Effectiveness Evaluation Algorithm Considering Technical and Human Factors in C4I System). This algorithm uses the rule of Newton's second law. Five factors considered in combat effectiveness evaluation are network power(M), movement velocity(v), information accuracy(I), command and control time(T) and collaboration level(C). Previous researches did not consider the value of the node and arc in evaluating the network power after the C4I system has been established. In addition, collaboration level which could be a major factor in combat effectiveness was not considered. E-TechMan algorithm is applied to JFOS-K(Joint Fire Operating System-Korea) system that can connect KJCCS of Korea armed forces with JADOCS(Joint Automated Deep Operations Coordination System) of U.S. armed forces and achieve sensor to shooter system in real time in JCS(Joint Chiefs of Staff) level. We compared the result of evaluation of Combat Effectiveness by E-TechMan with those by other algorithms(e.g., C2 Theory, Newton's second Law). We can evaluate combat effectiveness more effectively and substantially by E-TechMan algorithm. This study is meaningful because we improved the description level of reality in calculation of combat effectiveness in C4I system. Part 2 will describe the changes of war paradigm and the previous combat effectiveness evaluation methods such as C2 theory while Part 3 will explain E-TechMan algorithm specifically. Part 4 will present the application to JFOS-K and analyze the result with other algorithms. Part 5 is the conclusions provided in the final part.
Show/Hide Detailed Information in Korean
NCW 환경에서 C4I 체계 전투력 상승효과 평가 알고리즘 : 기술 및 인적 요소 고려
정환식 (국방대학교 운영분석학과)
박건우 (국방대학교 전산정보학과)
이재영 (국방대학교 운영분석학과)
이상훈 (국방대학교 전산정보학과)
Abstract
최근, NCW에 적합한 C4I 체계의 전투력 상승효과 평가의 필요성이 제기되고 있다. 기존의연구는 체계 자체에 중점을 두었으며, 인적 요소를 중요한 요소로 고려하지 않았다. 따라서, C4I 체계의 전투력 상승효과 평가 시 기술 및 인적 요소를 고려하여 평가하는 것이 필요한 시점이라고 할 수 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 E-TechMan(A Combat Effectiveness Evaluation Algorithm Considering Technical and Human Factors in C4I System)이라 불리는 전투력 상승효과 평가 알고리즘을 제안한다. E-TechMan 알고리즘은 합동화력체계(Joint Fire Operating System-Korea)에 적용되어 전투력 상승효과를 평가해보았다. 또한, 기존의 연구방법인 C2 이론 및 고전 역학에 의한 결과와 비교를 하였다. 본 연구는 인적요소에 의한 영향을 반영함으로써 기존의 연구보다 현실적인 전투력 상승효과 결과를 제시했다는데 가치가 있다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Jung, W.-S., G.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, and S.-H. Lee, "A Combat Effectiveness Evaluation Algorithm Considering Technical and Human Factors in C4I System", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 16, No. 2 (2010), 55~72.

IEEE Style
Whan-Sik Jung, Gun-Woo Park, Jae-Yeong Lee, and Sang-Hoon Lee, "A Combat Effectiveness Evaluation Algorithm Considering Technical and Human Factors in C4I System", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 55~72, 2010.

ACM Style
Jung, W.-S., Park, G.-W., Lee, J.-Y., and Lee, S.-H., 2010. A Combat Effectiveness Evaluation Algorithm Considering Technical and Human Factors in C4I System. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 16, 2, 55--72.
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@article{Jung:JIIS:2010:402,
author = {Jung, Whan-Sik and Park, Gun-Woo and Lee, Jae-Yeong and Lee, Sang-Hoon},
title = {A Combat Effectiveness Evaluation Algorithm Considering Technical and Human Factors in C4I System},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {June 2010},
volume = {16},
number = {2},
month = Jun,
year = {2010},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {55--72},
url = {},
doi = {},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Combat Effectiveness, Technical Factors, Human Factors, C2 Theory, Newton's Second Law and E-TechMan algorithm },
}
%0 Journal Article
%1 402
%A Whan-Sik Jung
%A Gun-Woo Park
%A Jae-Yeong Lee
%A Sang-Hoon Lee
%T A Combat Effectiveness Evaluation Algorithm Considering Technical and Human Factors in C4I System
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 16
%N 2
%P 55-72
%D 2010
%R
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society