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An Intelligent Intrusion Detection Model Based on Support Vector Machines and the Classification Threshold Optimization for Considering the Asymmetric Error Cost
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Hyeon-Uk Lee (Graduate School of Business IT, Kookmin University)
Hyun-Chul Ahn (School of Management Information Systems, Kookmin University)
Vol. 17, No. 4, Page: 157 ~ 173
Keywords
Intrusion Detection System, Support Vector Machines, Asymmetric Error Cost
Abstract
As the Internet use explodes recently, the malicious attacks and hacking for a system connected to network occur frequently. This means the fatal damage can be caused by these intrusions in the government agency, public office, and company operating various systems. For such reasons, there are growing interests and demand about the intrusion detection systems (IDS)-the security systems for detecting, identifying and responding to unauthorized or abnormal activities appropriately. The intrusion detection models that have been applied in conventional IDS are generally designed by modeling the experts' implicit knowledge on the network intrusions or the hackers' abnormal behaviors. These kinds of intrusion detection models perform well under the normal situations. However, they show poor performance when they meet a new or unknown pattern of the network attacks. For this reason, several recent studies try to adopt various artificial intelligence techniques, which can proactively respond to the unknown threats. Especially, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have popularly been applied in the prior studies because of its superior prediction accuracy. However, ANNs have some intrinsic limitations such as the risk of overfitting, the requirement of the large sample size, and the lack of understanding the prediction process (i.e. black box theory). As a result, the most recent studies on IDS have started to adopt support vector machine (SVM), the classification technique that is more stable and powerful compared to ANNs. SVM is known as a relatively high predictive power and generalization capability. Under this background, this study proposes a novel intelligent intrusion detection model that uses SVM as the classification model in order to improve the predictive ability of IDS. Also, our model is designed to consider the asymmetric error cost by optimizing the classification threshold. Generally, there are two common forms of errors in intrusion detection. The first error type is the False-Positive Error (FPE). In the case of FPE, the wrong judgment on it may result in the unnecessary fixation. The second error type is the False-Negative Error (FNE) that mainly misjudges the malware of the program as normal. Compared to FPE, FNE is more fatal. Thus, when considering total cost of misclassification in IDS, it is more reasonable to assign heavier weights on FNE rather than FPE. Therefore, we designed our proposed intrusion detection model to optimize the classification threshold in order to minimize the total misclassification cost. In this case, conventional SVM cannot be applied because it is designed to generate discrete output (i.e. a class). To resolve this problem, we used the revised SVM technique proposed by Platt(2000), which is able to generate the probability estimate. To validate the practical applicability of our model, we applied it to the real-world dataset for network intrusion detection. The experimental dataset was collected from the IDS sensor of an official institution in Korea from January to June 2010. We collected 15,000 log data in total, and selected 1,000 samples from them by using random sampling method. In addition, the SVM model was compared with the logistic regression (LOGIT), decision trees (DT), and ANN to confirm the superiority of the proposed model. LOGIT and DT was experimented using PASW Statistics v18.0, and ANN was experimented using Neuroshell 4.0. For SVM, LIBSVM v2.90-a freeware for training SVM classifier-was used. Empirical results showed that our proposed model based on SVM outperformed all the other comparative models in detecting network intrusions from the accuracy perspective. They also showed that our model reduced the total misclassification cost compared to the ANN-based intrusion detection model. As a result, it is expected that the intrusion detection model proposed in this paper would not only enhance the performance of IDS, but also lead to better management of FNE.
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비대칭 오류비용을 고려한 분류기준값 최적화와 SVM에 기반한 지능형 침입탐지모형
이현욱 (국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원)
안현철 (국민대학교 경영대학 경영정보학부)
Abstract
최근 인터넷 사용의 증가에 따라 네트워크에 연결된 시스템에 대한 악의적인 해킹과 침입이 빈번하게 발생하고 있으며, 각종 시스템을 운영하는 정부기관, 관공서, 기업 등에서는 이러한 해킹 및 침입에 의해 치명적인 타격을 입을 수 있는 상황에 놓여 있다. 이에 따라 인가되지 않았거나 비정상적인 활동들을 탐지, 식별하여 적절하게 대응하는 침입탐지 시스템에 대한 관심과 수요가 높아지고 있으며, 침입탐지 시스템의 예측성능을 개선하려는 연구 또한 활발하게 이루어지고 있다. 본 연구 역시 침입탐지 시스템의 예측성능을 개선하기 위한 새로운 지능형 침입탐지모형을 제안한다. 본 연구의 제안모형은 비교적 높은 예측력을 나타내면서 동시에 일반화 능력이 우수한 것으로 알려진 Support Vector Machine(SVM)을 기반으로, 비대칭 오류비용을 고려한 분류기준값 최적화를 함께 반영하여 침입을 효과적으로 차단할 수 있도록 설계되었다. 제안모형의 우수성을 확인하기 위해, 기존 기법인 로지스틱 회귀분석, 의사결정나무, 인공신경망과의 결과를 비교하였으며 그 결과 제안하는 SVM 모형이 다른 기법에 비해 상대적으로 우수한 성과를 보임을 확인할 수 있었다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Lee, H.-U., and H.-C. Ahn, "An Intelligent Intrusion Detection Model Based on Support Vector Machines and the Classification Threshold Optimization for Considering the Asymmetric Error Cost", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 17, No. 4 (2011), 157~173.

IEEE Style
Hyeon-Uk Lee, and Hyun-Chul Ahn, "An Intelligent Intrusion Detection Model Based on Support Vector Machines and the Classification Threshold Optimization for Considering the Asymmetric Error Cost", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 157~173, 2011.

ACM Style
Lee, H.-U., and Ahn, H.-C., 2011. An Intelligent Intrusion Detection Model Based on Support Vector Machines and the Classification Threshold Optimization for Considering the Asymmetric Error Cost. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 17, 4, 157--173.
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@article{Lee:JIIS:2011:469,
author = {Lee, Hyeon-Uk and Ahn, Hyun-Chul},
title = {An Intelligent Intrusion Detection Model Based on Support Vector Machines and the Classification Threshold Optimization for Considering the Asymmetric Error Cost},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {December 2011},
volume = {17},
number = {4},
month = Dec,
year = {2011},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {157--173},
url = {},
doi = {},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Intrusion Detection System, Support Vector Machines and Asymmetric Error Cost },
}
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%A Hyeon-Uk Lee
%A Hyun-Chul Ahn
%T An Intelligent Intrusion Detection Model Based on Support Vector Machines and the Classification Threshold Optimization for Considering the Asymmetric Error Cost
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 17
%N 4
%P 157-173
%D 2011
%R
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society