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A Study of the Reactive Movement Synchronization for Analysis of Group Flow
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Joon Mo Ryu (School of Management at Kyung Hee University)
Seung-Bo Park (School of Management at Kyung Hee University)
Jae Kyeong Kim (School of Management at Kyung Hee University)
Vol. 19, No. 1, Page: 79 ~ 94
Group Audience, Synchronization, Flow, Group Flow, Group Flow
Recently, the high value added business is steadily growing in the culture and art area. To generate high value from a performance, the satisfaction of audience is necessary. The flow is a critical factor for satisfaction, and it should be induced from audience and measured. To evaluate interest and emotion of audience on contents, producers or investors need a kind of index for the measurement of the flow. But it is neither easy to define the flow quantitatively, nor to collect audience’s reaction immediately.
The previous studies of the group flow were evaluated by the sum of the average value of each person’s reaction. The flow or “good feeling” from each audience was extracted from his face, especially, the change of his (or her) expression and body movement. But it was not easy to handle the large amount of real-time data from each sensor signals. And also it was difficult to set experimental devices, in terms of economic and environmental problems. Because, all participants should have their own personal sensor to check their physical signal. Also each camera should be located in front of their head to catch their looks. Therefore we need more simple system to analyze group flow.
This study provides the method for measurement of audiences flow with group synchronization at same time and place. To measure the synchronization, we made real-time processing system using the Differential Image and Group Emotion Analysis (GEA) system. Differential Image was obtained from camera and by the previous frame was subtracted from present frame. So the movement variation on audience’s reaction was obtained.
And then we developed a program, GEA (Group Emotion Analysis), for flow judgment model. After the measurement of the audience’s reaction, the synchronization is divided as Dynamic State Synchronization and Static State Synchronization. The Dynamic State Synchronization accompanies audience’s active reaction, while the Static State Synchronization means no movement of audience.
The Dynamic State Synchronization can be caused by the audience’s surprise action such as scary, creepy or reversal scene. And the Static State Synchronization was triggered by impressed or sad scene. Therefore we showed them several short movies containing various scenes mentioned previously. And these kind of scenes made them sad, clap, and creepy, etc.
To check the movement of audience, we defined the critical point, αand β. Dynamic State Synchronization was meaningful when the movement value was over critical point β, while Static State Synchronization was effective under critical point α. β is made by audience’clapping movemnet of 10 teams in stead of using average number of movement.
After checking the reactive movement of audience, the percentage (%) ratio was calculated from the division of “people having reaction” by “total people.” Total 37 teams were made in “2012 Seoul DMC Culture Open” and they involved the experiments. First, they followed induction to clap by staff. Second, basic scene for neutralize emotion of audience. Third, flow scene was displayed to audience. Forth, the reversal scene was introduced. And then 24 teams of them were provided with amuse and creepy scenes. And the other 10 teams were exposed with the sad scene. There were clapping and laughing action of audience on the amuse scene with shaking their head or hid with closing eyes. And also the sad or touching scene made them silent. If the results were over about 80%, the group could be judged as the synchronization and the flow were achieved.
As a result, the audience showed similar reactions about similar stimulation at same time and place. Once we get an additional normalization and experiment, we can obtain find the flow factor through the synchronization on a much bigger group and this should be useful for planning contents
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그룹 몰입도 판단을 위한 움직임 동기화 연구
류준모 (경희대학교 경영대학)
박승보 (경희대학교 경영대학)
김재경 (경희대학교 경영대학)
최근 문화 예술 분야를 활용하여 고부가가치를 창출하며 지속적으로 발전하는 공연예술 시장 환경 속에서 공연 기획자들이나 투자자들은 공연에서 성공을 하기 위한 객관적인 지표를 원한다. 성공적인 공연을 위해서는 관람객들에게 편의를 제공하여 만족도를 높여 주어야 하며, 따라서 재미와 감동, 가치를 높이는 방안도 모색해야 한다. 기존의 만족도 확인 방법으로는 공연기간, 설문조사, 입소문 등 주관적인 평가가 대부분이다. 이것들은 관람객들의 만족도에 대한 평가 기준이 될 수는 없다. 최근에는 공연에서 관람객의 몰입 정도가 공연의 주요 성공 요인으로 평가되기 시작 했다. 공연에 대한 몰입도가 높으면 만족도도 높아진다는 연구 결과도 있다. 그래서 공연에 대한 관람객의 몰입을 실시간으로 확인하는 지표를 개발하는 것은 관람객들의 만족도를 평가하는데 유용하게 사용될 수 있다. 기존의 몰입도 추출 연구는 대부분 1인을 대상으로 한 연구들이며 전체 관람객들의 몰입도는 개별 몰입도를 통합하여 측정하여 왔다. 하지만, 공연장에서 관람객들의 몰입도를 개별적으로 측정하기에는 경제적으로나 환경적으로 어려운 상황이다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위하여 본 연구에서는, 공연장의 전체 관람객 몰입도를 측정하기 위하여 차영상 기반의 동기화 기법을 활용하는 모형을 제시 한다. 이 기법은 우선 카메라를 통해 관람객 영상을 수집하고, 이를 차영상 기법을 이용하여 동일 장소, 시간 내 관람객들의 움직임 변화량을 측정하여 동기화 여부를 판단하는 것이다. 본 논문에서 동기화가 되었다는 의미는 관람객들이 몰입하고 있을 때, 자극원에 대하여 동시성을 가지고 반응하는 것을 말한다. 이것을 차영상 기법을 통하여 움직임의 변화량으로 환산하고, 이것을 이용하여 동적 동기화와 정적 동기화인지 구분한다. 그런 후 전체 관람객들의 움직임 변화량들을 비교하여 관람객들의 몰입도를 판단하는 모형을 구축하는 것이다. 이 연구에서는 전체 관객의 몰입도 몰입도 판단 모형을 제시하고, 실제 관객의 반응 데이터를 이용한 평가를 하여 제시한 연구모형이 실제 공연장에서 그룹 관람객들의 몰입도를 측정할 수 있는 것을 확인할 수 있었다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Ryu, J. M., S.-B. Park, and J. K. Kim, "A Study of the Reactive Movement Synchronization for Analysis of Group Flow", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 19, No. 1 (2013), 79~94.

IEEE Style
Joon Mo Ryu, Seung-Bo Park, and Jae Kyeong Kim, "A Study of the Reactive Movement Synchronization for Analysis of Group Flow", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 79~94, 2013.

ACM Style
Ryu, J. M., Park, S.-B., and Kim, J. K., 2013. A Study of the Reactive Movement Synchronization for Analysis of Group Flow. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 19, 1, 79--94.
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author = {Ryu, Joon Mo and Park, Seung-Bo and Kim, Jae Kyeong},
title = {A Study of the Reactive Movement Synchronization for Analysis of Group Flow},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {March 2013},
volume = {19},
number = {1},
month = Mar,
year = {2013},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {79--94},
url = { },
doi = {10.13088/jiis.2013.19.1.079},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Group Audience, Synchronization, Flow, Group Flow and Group Flow },
%0 Journal Article
%1 521
%A Joon Mo Ryu
%A Seung-Bo Park
%A Jae Kyeong Kim
%T A Study of the Reactive Movement Synchronization for Analysis of Group Flow
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 19
%N 1
%P 79-94
%D 2013
%R 10.13088/jiis.2013.19.1.079
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society