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Product Recommender Systems using Multi-Model Ensemble Techniques
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Yeonjeong Lee (Graduate School of Management, Dongguk University_Seoul)
Kyoung-jae Kim (Business School, Dongguk University_Seoul)
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 39 ~ 54
Product Recommender System, Multi-Model Ensemble Technique, Association Rules, Artificial Neural Networks, Artificial Neural Networks
Recent explosive increase of electronic commerce provides many advantageous purchase opportunities to customers. In this situation, customers who do not have enough knowledge about their purchases, may accept product recommendations. Product recommender systems automatically reflect user’s preference and provide recommendation list to the users. Thus, product recommender system in online shopping store has been known as one of the most popular tools for one-to-one marketing. However, recommender systems which do not properly reflect user’s preference cause user’s disappointment and waste of time. <br /> In this study, we propose a novel recommender system which uses data mining and multi-model ensemble techniques to enhance the recommendation performance through reflecting the precise user’s preference. The research data is collected from the real-world online shopping store, which deals products from famous art galleries and museums in Korea. The data initially contain 5759 transaction data, but finally remain 3167 transaction data after deletion of null data. In this study, we transform the categorical variables into dummy variables and exclude outlier data.<br /> The proposed model consists of two steps. The first step predicts customers who have high likelihood to purchase products in the online shopping store. In this step, we first use logistic regression, decision trees, and artificial neural networks to predict customers who have high likelihood to purchase products in each product group. We perform above data mining techniques using SAS E-Miner software. In this study, we partition datasets into two sets as modeling and validation sets for the logistic regression and decision trees. We also partition datasets into three sets as training, test, and validation sets for the artificial neural network model. The validation dataset is equal for the all experiments. Then we composite the results of each predictor using the multi-model ensemble techniques such as bagging and bumping. Bagging is the abbreviation of “Bootstrap Aggregation” and it composite outputs from several machine learning techniques for raising the performance and stability of prediction or classification. This technique is special form of the averaging method. Bumping is the abbreviation of “Bootstrap Umbrella of Model Parameter,” and it only considers the model which has the lowest error value. The results show that bumping outperforms bagging and the other predictors except for “Poster” product group. For the “Poster” product group, artificial neural network model performs better than the other models. <br /> In the second step, we use the market basket analysis to extract association rules for co-purchased products. We can extract thirty one association rules according to values of Lift, Support, and Confidence measure. We set the minimum transaction frequency to support associations as 5%, maximum number of items in an association as 4, and minimum confidence for rule generation as 10%. This study also excludes the extracted association rules below 1 of lift value. We finally get fifteen association rules by excluding duplicate rules. Among the fifteen association rules, eleven rules contain association between products in “Office Supplies” product group, one rules include the association between “Office Supplies” and “Fashion” product groups, and other three rules contain association between “Office Supplies” and “Home Decoration” product groups. Finally, the proposed product recommender systems provides list of recommendations to the proper customers. <br /> We test the usability of the proposed system by using prototype and real-world transaction and profile data. For this end, we construct the prototype system by using the ASP, Java Script and Microsoft Access. In addition, we survey about user satisfaction for the recommended product list from the proposed system and the randomly selected product lists. The participants for the survey are 173 persons who use MSN Messenger, Daum Caf?, and P2P services. We evaluate the user satisfaction using five-scale Likert measure. This study also performs “Paired Sample T-test” for the results of the survey. The results show that the proposed model outperforms the random selection model with 1% statistical significance level. It means that the users satisfied the recommended product list significantly. The results also show that the proposed system may be useful in real-world online shopping store.
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다중모형조합기법을 이용한 상품추천시스템
이연정 (동국대학교_서울 일반대학원 경영정보학과)
김경재 (동국대학교_서울 경영학부)
전자상거래의 폭발적 증가는 소비자에게 더 유리한 많은 구매 선택의 기회를 제공한다. 이러한 상황에서 자신의 구매의사결정에 대한 확신이 부족한 소비자들은 의사결정 절차를 간소화하고 효과적인 의사결정을 위해 추천을 받아 들인다. 온라인 상점의 상품추천시스템은 일대일 마케팅의 대표적 실현수단으로써의 가치를 인정받고 있다. 그러나 사용자의 기호를 제대로 반영하지 못하는 추천시스템은 사용자의 실망과 시간낭비를 발생시킨다. 본 연구에서는 정확한 사용자의 기호 반영을 통한 추천기법의 정교화를 위해 데이터마이닝과 다중모형조합기법을 이용한 상품추천시스템 모형을 제안하고자 한다. 본 연구에서 제안하는 모형은 크게 두 개의 단계로 이루어져 있으며, 첫 번째 단계에서는 상품군 별 우량고객 선정 규칙을 도출하기 위해서 로지스틱 회귀분석 모형, 의사결정나무 모형, 인공신경망 모형을 구축한 후 다중모형조합기법인 Bagging과 Bumping의 개념을 이용하여 세 가지 모형의 결과를 조합한다. 두 번째 단계에서는 상품군 별 연관관계에 관한 규칙을 추출하기 위하여 장바구니분석을 활용한다. 상기의 두 단계를 통하여 상품군 별로 구매가능성이 높은 우량고객을 선정하여 그 고객에게 관심을 가질만한 같은 상품군 또는 다른 상품군 내의 다른 상품을 추천하게 된다. 제안하는 상품추천시스템은 실제 운영 중인 온라인 상점인 ‘I아트샵’의 데이터를 이용하여 프로토타입을 구축하였고 실제 소비자에 대한 적용가능성을 확인하였다. 제안하는 모형의 유용성을 검증하기 위하여 제안 상품추천시스템의 추천과 임의 추천을 통한 추천의 결과를 사용자에게 제시하고 제안된 추천에 대한 만족도를 조사한 후 대응표본 T검정을 수행하였으며, 그 결과 사용자의 만족도를 유의하게 향상시키는 것으로 나타났다.
Cite this article
Lee, Y., & Kim, K.-j. (2013). Product Recommender Systems using Multi-Model Ensemble Techniques. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, 19(2), 39-54.

IEEE Style
Yeonjeong Lee, and Kyoung-jae Kim, "Product Recommender Systems using Multi-Model Ensemble Techniques", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 39~54, 2013.

ACM Style
Lee, Y., & Kim, K.-j., 2013. Product Recommender Systems using Multi-Model Ensemble Techniques. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 19, 2, 39--54.
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author = {Lee, Yeonjeong and Kim, Kyoung-jae},
title = {Product Recommender Systems using Multi-Model Ensemble Techniques},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {June 2013},
volume = {19},
number = {2},
month = Jun,
year = {2013},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {39--54},
url = { },
doi = {10.13088/jiis.2013.19.2.039},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Product Recommender System, Multi-Model Ensemble Technique, Association Rules, Artificial Neural Networks and Artificial Neural Networks },
%0 Journal Article
%1 527
%A Yeonjeong Lee
%A Kyoung-jae Kim
%T Product Recommender Systems using Multi-Model Ensemble Techniques
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 19
%N 2
%P 39-54
%D 2013
%R 10.13088/jiis.2013.19.2.039
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society