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Critical Success Factor of Noble Payment System: Multiple Case Studies
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Arum Park (School of Management, KyungHee University)
Kyoung Jun Lee (School of Management, KyungHee University)
Vol. 20, No. 4, Page: 59 ~ 87
Critical Success Factor; Payment Service; Business Model; Case Study; Literal Replication, Proposition Development, Proposition Testing; Non-Customer Analysis
In MIS field, the researches on payment services are focused on adoption factors of payment service using behavior theories such as TRA(Theory of Reasoned Action), TAM(Technology Acceptance Model), and TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). The previous researches presented various adoption factors according to types of payment service, nations, culture and so on even though adoption factors of identical payment service were presented differently by researchers. The payment service industry relatively has strong path dependency to the existing payment methods so that the research results on the identical payment service are different due to payment culture of nation.
This paper aims to suggest a successful adoption factor of noble payment service regardless of nation’s culture and characteristics of payment and prove it. In previous researches, common adoption factors of payment service are convenience, ease of use, security, convenience, speed etc. But real cases prove the fact that adoption factors that the previous researches present are not always critical to success to penetrate a market. For example, PayByPhone, NFC based parking payment service, successfully has penetrated to early market and grown. In contrast, Google Wallet service failed to be adopted to users despite NFC based payment method which provides convenience, security, ease of use.
As shown in upper case, there remains an unexplained aspect. Therefore, the present research question emerged from the question: “What is the more essential and fundamental factor that should takes precedence over factors such as provides convenience, security, ease of use for successful penetration to market”.
With these cases, this paper analyzes four cases predicted on the following hypothesis and demonstrates it. “To successfully penetrate a market and sustainably grow, new payment service should find non-customer of the existing payment service and provide noble payment method so that they can use payment method”.
We give plausible explanations for the hypothesis using multiple case studies. Diners club, Danal, PayPal, Square were selected as a typical and successful cases in each category of payment service. The discussion on cases is primarily non-customer analysis that noble payment service targets on to find the most crucial factor in the early market, we does not attempt to consider factors for business growth. We clarified three-tier non-customer of the payment method that new payment service targets on and elaborated how new payment service satisfy them.
In case of credit card, this payment service target first tier of non-customer who can’t pay for because they don’t have any cash temporarily but they have regular income. So credit card provides an opportunity which they can do economic activities by delaying the date of payment.
In a result of wireless phone payment’s case study, this service targets on second of non-customer who can’t use online payment because they concern about security or have to take a complex process and learn how to use online payment method. Therefore, wireless phone payment provides very convenient payment method. Especially, it made group of young pay for a little money without a credit card.
Case study result of PayPal, online payment service, shows that it targets on second tier of non-customer who reject to use online payment service because of concern about sensitive information leaks such as passwords and credit card details. Accordingly, PayPal service allows users to pay online without a provision of sensitive information.
Final Square case result, Mobile POS –based payment service, also shows that it targets on second tier of non-customer who can’t individually transact offline because of cash’s shortness. Hence, Square provides dongle which function as POS by putting dongle in earphone terminal.
As a result, four cases made non-customer their customer so that they could penetrate early market and had been extended their market share.
Consequently, all cases supported the hypothesis and it is highly probable according to ‘analytic generation’ that case study methodology suggests.
We present for judging the quality of research designs the following. Construct validity, internal validity, external validity, reliability are common to all social science methods, these have been summarized in numerous textbooks(Yin, 2014). In case study methodology, these also have served as a framework for assessing a large group of case studies (Gibbert, Ruigrok & Wicki, 2008). Construct validity is to identify correct operational measures for the concepts being studied. To satisfy construct validity, we use multiple sources of evidence such as the academic journals, magazine and articles etc.
Internal validity is to seek to establish a causal relationship, whereby certain conditions are believed to lead to other conditions, as distinguished from spurious relationships. To satisfy internal validity, we do explanation building through four cases analysis. External validity is to define the domain to which a study’s findings can be generalized. To satisfy this, replication logic in multiple case studies is used.
Reliability is to demonstrate that the operations of a study –such as the data collection procedures- can be repeated, with the same results. To satisfy this, we use case study protocol.
In Korea, the competition among stakeholders over mobile payment industry is intensifying. Not only main three Telecom Companies but also Smartphone companies and service provider like KakaoTalk announced that they would enter into mobile payment industry. Mobile payment industry is getting competitive. But it doesn't still have momentum effect notwithstanding positive presumptions that will grow very fast.
Mobile payment services are categorized into various technology based payment service such as IC mobile card and Application payment service of cloud based, NFC, sound wave, BLE(Bluetooth Low Energy), Biometric recognition technology etc. Especially, mobile payment service is discontinuous innovations that users should change their behavior and noble infrastructure should be installed.
These require users to learn how to use it and cause infra- installation cost to shopkeepers. Additionally, payment industry has the strong path dependency. In spite of these obstacles, mobile payment service which should provide dramatically improved value as a products and service of discontinuous innovations is focusing on convenience and security, convenience and so on.
We suggest the following to success mobile payment service. First, non-customers of the existing payment service need to be identified. Second, needs of them should be taken. Then, noble payment service provides non-customer who can’t pay by the previous payment method to payment method.
In conclusion, mobile payment service can create new market and will result in extension of payment market.
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새로운 결제서비스의 성공요인: 다중사례연구
박아름 (경희대학교 경영대학)
이경전 (경희대학교 경영대학)
성공요인; 결제서비스; 비즈니스 모델; 사례연구; 반복연구; 명제개발; 명제검증; 비고객분석
결제서비스에 대한 기존의 연구는 결제서비스의 채택요인 또는 지속적인 사용에 영향을 미치는 요인 등 행동이론을 중심으로 진행되어 왔다. 이러한 요인들이 미치는 영향에 대한 결과는 결제서비스의 종류에 따라 또는 연구 지역에 따라 상이하게 나타나고 있다. 본 연구는 결제 서비스의 종류나 문화 등의 변수에 관계없이 새로운 결제 서비스가 성공할 수 있는 일반적인 요인이 무엇인지에 대한 의문에서 시작하게 되었다. 기존 연구에서 중요한 영향을 미친다고 제시한 채택요인들은 실제 결제사례의 결과에 비추어 보면 기존 연구에서 주장한 바와 일치하지 않는 경우를 볼 수 있다. 이러한 이론과 현실 사이의 괴리를 발견하고 새로운 결제서비스가 성공하기 위한 근본적이고 결정적인 요인이 무엇인지에 대해 제시하고 사례연구를 통해 가설을 입증하고자 하는 것이 본 연구의 목적이다. 따라서 본 연구는 새로운 결제서비스가 성공하기 위해서는 기존 결제서비스의 비고객에게 이들이 결제할 수 있는 수단을 제공함으로써 새로운 결제 시장을 창출해야 함을 주장한다. 이를 위해 성공한 결제사례인 신용카드, 휴대폰 소액결제, PayPal, Square을 채택하였으며, 기존 결제서비스의 비고객을 3개의 계층으로 분류하여 분석하였다. 그리고 새로운 결제서비스가 어떠한 계층을 타겟으로 하였으며 이들에게 어떠한 결제수단을 제공하여 새로운 시장을 창출하였는지 제시한다. 사례 분석 결과, 성공 사례 모두 본 연구의 가설을 지지하는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 새로운 결제서비스는 결국 기존의 결제수단으로 거래를 할 수 없었던 이들이 결제를 할 수 있도록 함으로써 성공할 수 있다는 가설을 입증하였다. 모바일 결제서비스가 아직 대중화되지 못한 원인을 본 가설에 비추어 분석해 보면 보면, 기존의 결제 인프라를 이용할 수 있는 바코드, QR코드 기반의 모바일 결제 서비스뿐만 아니라 NFC, BLE, 음파 등의 새로운 기술이 적용된 모바일 결제 서비스가 출시되는 등 새로운 시도가 계속되고 있다. 또한 모바일 월렛은 사용자들이 소지하고 있는 카드정보를 스마트폰에 저장하여 지갑 없이도 결제가 가능하며, 쿠폰 제공, 적립카드 관리, 신분증을 저장하는 등의 다양한 부가적인 기능을 제공하고 있어 성공할 것이라는 전망이 대두되고 있다. 하지만 이러한 서비스들은 본 연구 관점에서 보자면 기존 결제서비스의 비고객이(기존 결제수단을 이용할 수 없었던 사용자) 거래할 수 있는 새로운 결제 수단을 제공해 주지 못하고 있기 때문에 결국 초기사용자에게만 채택될 뿐 대중화되는데 한계가 있을 것으로 예상된다. 반면, 새로운 모바일 결제서비스의 성공사례 중 하나인 PaybyPhone은 기존 코인주차 결제서비스의 비고객인 현금 미소지 고객에게 스마트폰을 이용한 새로운 결제수단을 제공함으로써 새로운 주차 결제 시장을 창출하였으며 현재 미국뿐만 아니라 유럽시장까지 진출하는 등 급성장하고 있다.
결론적으로, 많은 이해관계자들이 모바일 결제시장을 선점하기 위해 다양한 형태의 모바일 결제 서비스를 출시하고 있지만 캐즘을 뛰어넘어 주류 시장에 성공적으로 정착할 수 있느냐는 결국 기존 결제서비스의 비고객군에게 그들이 필요로 하는 새로운 결제수단을 제공하는지의 여부에 달려있다고 볼 수 있다. 따라서 모바일 결제 서비스의 기획자나 매니저들은 서비스 기획 시 기존 결제서비스의 비고객군은 누구인가? 그들은 어떠한 결제수단을 원하는가?를 먼저 고려해야 한다.
본 연구는 새로운 결제서비스가 성공하는데 미치는 요인에 대한 가설을 검증하기 위해 4개의 성공 사례를 선택하였으며 각 사례에 동일한 가설을 검증하는 ‘반복연구논리’를 적용하였다. 본 가설을 더욱 공고히 하기 위해 사례연구방법론에서 제시하고 있는 경쟁가설을 포함한 후속 사례연구가 진행되어야 할 것이다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Park, A., and K. J. Lee, "Critical Success Factor of Noble Payment System: Multiple Case Studies", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 20, No. 4 (2014), 59~87.

IEEE Style
Arum Park, and Kyoung Jun Lee, "Critical Success Factor of Noble Payment System: Multiple Case Studies", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 59~87, 2014.

ACM Style
Park, A., and Lee, K. J., 2014. Critical Success Factor of Noble Payment System: Multiple Case Studies. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 20, 4, 59--87.
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author = {Park, Arum and Lee, Kyoung Jun},
title = {Critical Success Factor of Noble Payment System: Multiple Case Studies},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {December 2014},
volume = {20},
number = {4},
month = Dec,
year = {2014},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {59--87},
url = { },
doi = {},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Critical Success Factor; Payment Service; Business Model; Case Study; Literal Replication, Proposition Development and Proposition Testing; Non-Customer Analysis },
%0 Journal Article
%1 594
%A Arum Park
%A Kyoung Jun Lee
%T Critical Success Factor of Noble Payment System: Multiple Case Studies
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 20
%N 4
%P 59-87
%D 2014
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society