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Dynamic forecasts of bankruptcy with Recurrent Neural Network model
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Kwon Hyukkun (Graduate School Business Informatics, Hanyang University)
Lee Dongkyu (Graduate School Business Informatics, Hanyang University)
Shin Minsoo (School of Business, Hanyang University)
Vol. 23, No. 3, Page: 139 ~ 153
Recurrent Neural Network, Bankruptcy Prediction, Time-Series model
Corporate bankruptcy can cause great losses not only to stakeholders but also to many related sectors in society. Through the economic crises, bankruptcy have increased and bankruptcy prediction models have become more and more important. Therefore, corporate bankruptcy has been regarded as one of the major topics of research in business management. Also, many studies in the industry are in progress and important.
Previous studies attempted to utilize various methodologies to improve the bankruptcy prediction accuracy and to resolve the overfitting problem, such as Multivariate Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Generalized Linear Model (GLM). These methods are based on statistics. Recently, researchers have used machine learning methodologies such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN).Furthermore, fuzzy theory and genetic algorithms were used. Because of this change, many of bankruptcy models are developed. Also, performance has been improved.
In general, the company’s financial and accounting information will change over time. Likewise, the market situation also changes, so there are many difficulties in predicting bankruptcy only with information at a certain point in time. However, even though traditional research has problems that don’t take into account the time effect, dynamic model has not been studied much. When we ignore the time effect, we get the biased results. So the static model may not be suitable for predicting bankruptcy. Thus, using the dynamic model, there is a possibility that bankruptcy prediction model is improved.
In this paper, we propose RNN (Recurrent Neural Network) which is one of the deep learning methodologies. The RNN learns time series data and the performance is known to be good. Prior to experiment, we selected non-financial firms listed on the KOSPI, KOSDAQ and KONEX markets from 2010 to 2016 for the estimation of the bankruptcy prediction model and the comparison of forecasting performance. In order to prevent a mistake of predicting bankruptcy by using the financial information already reflected in the deterioration of the financial condition of the company, the financial information was collected with a lag of two years, and the default period was defined from January to December of the year. Then we defined the bankruptcy. The bankruptcy we defined is the abolition of the listing due to sluggish earnings. We confirmed abolition of the list at KIND that is corporate stock information website. Then we selected variables at previous papers. The first set of variables are Z-score variables. These variables have become traditional variables in predicting bankruptcy. The second set of variables are dynamic variable set. Finally we selected 240 normal companies and 226 bankrupt companies at the first variable set. Likewise, we selected 229 normal companies and 226 bankrupt companies at the second variable set.
We created a model that reflects dynamic changes in time-series financial data and by comparing the suggested model with the analysis of existing bankruptcy predictive models, we found that the suggested model could help to improve the accuracy of bankruptcy predictions. We used financial data in KIS Value (Financial database) and selected Multivariate Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Generalized Linear Model called logistic regression (GLM), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model as benchmark.
The result of the experiment proved that RNN’s performance was better than comparative model. The accuracy of RNN was high in both sets of variables and the Area Under the Curve (AUC) value was also high. Also when we saw the hit-ratio table, the ratio of RNNs that predicted a poor company to be bankrupt was higher than that of other comparative models. However the limitation of this paper is that an overfitting problem occurs during RNN learning. But we expect to be able to solve the overfitting problem by selecting more learning data and appropriate variables. From these result, it is expected that this research will contribute to the development of a bankruptcy prediction by proposing a new dynamic model.
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RNN(Recurrent Neural Network)을 이용한기업부도예측모형에서 회계정보의 동적 변화 연구
권혁건 (한양대학교 일반대학원 비즈니스 인포메틱스학과)
이동규 (한양대학교 일반대학원 비즈니스 인포메틱스학과)
신민수 (한양대학교 경영대학 경영학부)
순환 신경망, 부도 예측, 시계열 모형
기업의 부도는 이해관계자들뿐 아니라 사회에도 경제적으로 큰 손실을 야기한다. 따라서 기업부도예측은 경영학 연구에 있어 중요한 연구주제 중 하나로 다뤄져 왔다. 기존의 연구에서는 부도 예측을 위해 다변량판별분석, 로짓분석, 신경망분석 등 다양한 방법론을 이용하여 모형의 부도 예측력을 높이고 과적합의 문제를 해결하고자 시도하였다. 하지만 기존의 연구들이 시간적 요소를 고려하지 않아 발생할 수 있는 문제점들을 갖고 있음에도 불구하고 부도 예측에 있어서 동적 모형을 이용한 연구는 활발히 진행되고 있지 않으며 따라서 동적 모형을 이용하여 부도예측모형이 더욱 개선될 여지가 있다는 점을 확인할 수 있었다이에 본 연구에서는 RNN(Recurrent Neural Network)을 이용하여 시계열 재무 데이터의 동적 변화를 반영한모형을 만들었으며 기존의 부도예측모형들과의 비교분석을 통해 부도 예측력의 향상에 도움이 된다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 모형의 유용성을 검증하기 위해 KIS Value의 재무 데이터를 이용하여 실험을 수행하였고 비교모형으로는 다변량판별분석, 로짓분석, SVM, 인공신경망을 선정하였다. 실험 결과 제안된 모형이 비교 모형에비해 우수한 예측력을 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 본 연구는 변수들의 변화를 포착하는 동적 모형을 부도예측에 새롭게 제안하여 부도예측 연구의 발전에 기여할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Hyukkun, K., L. Dongkyu, and S. Minsoo, "Dynamic forecasts of bankruptcy with Recurrent Neural Network model", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017), 139~153.

IEEE Style
Kwon Hyukkun, Lee Dongkyu, and Shin Minsoo, "Dynamic forecasts of bankruptcy with Recurrent Neural Network model", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 139~153, 2017.

ACM Style
Hyukkun, K., Dongkyu, L., and Minsoo, S., 2017. Dynamic forecasts of bankruptcy with Recurrent Neural Network model. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 23, 3, 139--153.
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author = {Hyukkun, Kwon and Dongkyu, Lee and Minsoo, Shin},
title = {Dynamic forecasts of bankruptcy with Recurrent Neural Network model},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {September 2017},
volume = {23},
number = {3},
month = Sep,
year = {2017},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {139--153},
url = { },
doi = {10.13088/jiis.2017.23.3.155},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Recurrent Neural Network, Bankruptcy Prediction and Time-Series model
%0 Journal Article
%1 701
%A Kwon Hyukkun
%A Lee Dongkyu
%A Shin Minsoo
%T Dynamic forecasts of bankruptcy with Recurrent Neural Network model
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 23
%N 3
%P 139-153
%D 2017
%R 10.13088/jiis.2017.23.3.155
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society