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An Analysis of the Comparative Importance of Systematic Attributes for Developing an Intelligent Online News Recommendation System: Focusing on the PWYW Payment Model
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Hyoung-Joo Lee (School of Business Administration, Graduate School, Ajou University)
Nuree Chung (Department of Business Administration, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University)
Sung-Byung Yang (Department of Business Administration, Kyung Hee University)
Vol. 24, No. 1, Page: 75 ~ 100
10.13088/jiis.2018.24.1.075
Keywords
Online News Content, Systematic Attributes, Readers’ Voluntary Payment, Pay-What-You- Want (PWYW) Model, Intelligent Online News Recommendation System, Conjoint Analysis
Abstract
Mobile devices have become an important channel for news content usage in our daily life. However, online news content readers' resistance to online news monetization is more serious than other digital content businesses, such as webtoons, music sources, videos, and games. Since major portal sites distribute online news content free of charge to increase their traffics, customers have been accustomed to free news content; hence this makes online news providers more difficult to switch their policies on business models (i.e., monetization policy). As a result, most online news providers are highly dependent on the advertising business model, which can lead to increasing number of false, exaggerated, or sensational advertisements inside the news website to maximize their advertising revenue. To reduce this advertising dependencies, many online news providers had attempted to switch their ‘free’ readers to ‘paid’ users, but most of them failed. However, recently, some online news media have been successfully applying the Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) payment model, which allows readers to voluntarily pay fees for their favorite news content. These successful cases shed some lights to the managers of online news content provider regarding that the PWYW model can serve as an alternative business model. In this study, therefore, we collected 379 online news articles from Ohmynews.com that has been successfully employing the PWYW model, and analyzed the comparative importance of systematic attributes of online news content on readers’ voluntary payment. More specifically, we derived the six systematic attributes (i.e., Type of Article Title, Image Stimulation, Article Readability, Article Type, Dominant Emotion, and Article-Image Similarity) and three or four levels within each attribute based on previous studies. Then, we conducted content analysis to measure five attributes except Article Readability attribute, measured by Flesch readability score. Before conducting main content analysis, the face reliabilities of chosen attributes were measured by three doctoral level researchers with 37 sample articles, and inter-coder reliabilities of the three coders were verified. Then, the main content analysis was conducted for two months from March 2017 with 379 online news articles. All 379 articles were reviewed by the same three coders, and 65 articles that showed inconsistency among coders were excluded before employing conjoint analysis. Finally, we examined the comparative importance of those six systematic attributes (Study 1), and levels within each of the six attributes (Study 2) through conjoint analysis with 314 online news articles. From the results of conjoint analysis, we found that Article Readability, Article-Image Similarity, and Type of Article Title are the most significant factors affecting online news readers’ voluntary payment. First, it can be interpreted that if the level of readability of an online news article is in line with the readers’ level of readership, the readers will voluntarily pay more. Second, the similarity between the content of the article and the image within it enables the readers to increase the information acceptance and to transmit the message of the article more effectively. Third, readers expect that the article title would reveal the content of the article, and the expectation influences the understanding and satisfaction of the article. Therefore, it is necessary to write an article with an appropriate readability level, and use images and title well matched with the content to make readers voluntarily pay more. We also examined the comparative importance of levels within each attribute in more details. Based on findings of two studies, two major and nine minor propositions are suggested for future empirical research. This study has academic implications in that it is one of the first studies applying both content analysis and conjoint analysis together to examine readers’ voluntary payment behavior, rather than their intention to pay. In addition, online news content creators, providers, and managers could find some practical insights from this research in terms of how they should produce news content to make readers voluntarily pay more for their online news content.
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지능형 온라인 뉴스 추천시스템 개발을 위한 체계적 속성간 상대적 중요성 분석: PWYW 지불모델을 중심으로
이형주 (아주대학교 일반대학원 경영정보학과)
정누리 (경희대학교 일반대학원 경영학과)
양성병 (경희대학교 경영대학 경영학과)
Keywords
온라인 뉴스 콘텐츠, 체계적 속성, 자발적 독자구독료, Pay What You Want(PWYW), 지능형 온라인 뉴스 추천시스템, 컨조인트 분석
Abstract
최근 웹툰, 음원, 동영상, 게임, 교육, 앱 등 많은 콘텐츠 기업에서 콘텐츠 유료화 정책을 추진하고 있으나, 무료 콘텐츠에 익숙한 독자들의 문화적 관성이 온라인 콘텐츠의 유료화 전환에 많은 어려움을 주고 있다. 특히온라인 뉴스 콘텐츠는 포털 사이트를 통해 무료로 배포되고 있어 유료화에 대한 독자들의 거부감이 다른 온라인 콘텐츠 보다 더욱 심한 실정이다. 이러한 문제 해결을 위해 학계 및 산업계에서 온라인 콘텐츠의 유료화 방안에 대한 연구가 다양한 차원에서 진행되었다. 최근에는 일부 온라인 뉴스 매체를 중심으로 독자들이 자발적으로 마음에 드는 뉴스 콘텐츠에 대해 원하는 만큼의 구독료를 지불하게 하는 Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) 지불모델을 적용하는 시도가 이뤄지고 있다. 이에 본 연구는 PWYW 모델의 성공적인 정착을 위한 선결요인으로독자의 자발적 독자구독료 지불행위에 영향을 미치는 온라인 뉴스 콘텐츠의 체계적 속성을 도출하고, 각 속성및 하위 속성의 상대적 중요도를 비교 분석하였다. 좀 더 구체적으로, 선행연구 분석을 통해 기사제목 유형, 기사 이미지 자극성, 기사 가독성, 기사 유형, 기사 지배적 정서, 기사 내용-이미지 유사성 등 총 여섯 가지의 온라인 뉴스 콘텐츠의 체계적 속성을 도출하였으며, 내용분석(content analysis)을 통해 각 기사의 속성값을 측정하고이를 기반으로 컨조인트 분석(conjoint analysis)을 실시하여 속성 간 상대적 중요도를 계산 및 검증하였다. PWYW 모델이 적용된 온라인 뉴스 콘텐츠 379개에 대한 컨조인트 분석 결과, 기사 가독성, 기사 내용-이미지유사성, 기사제목 유형 등의 순으로 자발적 독자구독료에 큰 영향을 주는 것으로 분석된 반면, 기사 유형, 기사지배적 정서, 기사 이미지 자극성 등은 상대적으로 낮은 중요도를 보이는 것으로 조사되었다. 본 연구는 내용분석과 컨조인트 분석을 동시에 실시하여 온라인 뉴스 콘텐츠에 대한 자발적 지불의도에 영향을 미치는 체계적요인을 도출하고, 그 상대적 중요도까지 살펴보았다는 점에서 학술적 의의가 있으며, 온라인 뉴스 콘텐츠 제작자 및 사이트 운영자들로 하여금 독자들의 자발적 지불을 유도할 수 있는 가이드라인을 제시하였다는 점에서그 실무적 의의가 있다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Lee, H.-J., N. Chung, and S.-B. Yang, "An Analysis of the Comparative Importance of Systematic Attributes for Developing an Intelligent Online News Recommendation System: Focusing on the PWYW Payment Model", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 24, No. 1 (2018), 75~100.

IEEE Style
Hyoung-Joo Lee, Nuree Chung, and Sung-Byung Yang, "An Analysis of the Comparative Importance of Systematic Attributes for Developing an Intelligent Online News Recommendation System: Focusing on the PWYW Payment Model", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 75~100, 2018.

ACM Style
Lee, H.-J., Chung, N., and Yang, S.-B., 2018. An Analysis of the Comparative Importance of Systematic Attributes for Developing an Intelligent Online News Recommendation System: Focusing on the PWYW Payment Model. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 24, 1, 75--100.
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@article{Lee:JIIS:2018:714,
author = {Lee, Hyoung-Joo and Chung, Nuree and Yang, Sung-Byung},
title = {An Analysis of the Comparative Importance of Systematic Attributes for Developing an Intelligent Online News Recommendation System: Focusing on the PWYW Payment Model},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {March 2018},
volume = {24},
number = {1},
month = Mar,
year = {2018},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {75--100},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13088/jiis.2018.24.1.075 },
doi = {10.13088/jiis.2018.24.1.075},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Online News Content, Systematic Attributes, Readers’ Voluntary Payment, Pay-What-You- Want (PWYW) Model, Intelligent Online News Recommendation System and Conjoint Analysis },
}
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%1 714
%A Hyoung-Joo Lee
%A Nuree Chung
%A Sung-Byung Yang
%T An Analysis of the Comparative Importance of Systematic Attributes for Developing an Intelligent Online News Recommendation System: Focusing on the PWYW Payment Model
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 24
%N 1
%P 75-100
%D 2018
%R 10.13088/jiis.2018.24.1.075
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society