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Sentiment Analysis of Korean Reviews Using CNN: Focusing on Morpheme Embedding
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Hyun-jung Park (Management Research Center, Ewha Womans University)
Min-chae Song (Big Data Analytics, Ewha Womans University)
Kyung-shik Shin (School of Business, Ewha Womans University)
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 59 ~ 83
10.13088/jiis.2018.24.2.059
Keywords
Sentiment Analysis, Morpheme Vector, Word Vector, Deep Learning, CNN, CBOW
Abstract
With the increasing importance of sentiment analysis to grasp the needs of customers and the public, various types of deep learning models have been actively applied to English texts. In the sentiment analysis of English texts by deep learning, natural language sentences included in training and test datasets are usually converted into sequences of word vectors before being entered into the deep learning models. In this case, word vectors generally refer to vector representations of words obtained through splitting a sentence by space characters. There are several ways to derive word vectors, one of which is Word2Vec used for producing the 300 dimensional Google word vectors from about 100 billion words of Google News data. They have been widely used in the studies of sentiment analysis of reviews from various fields such as restaurants, movies, laptops, cameras, etc.
Unlike English, morpheme plays an essential role in sentiment analysis and sentence structure analysis in Korean, which is a typical agglutinative language with developed postpositions and endings. A morpheme can be defined as the smallest meaningful unit of a language, and a word consists of one or more morphemes. For example, for a word '예쁘고', the morphemes are '예쁘(= adjective)' and '고(=connective ending)'. Reflecting the significance of Korean morphemes, it seems reasonable to adopt the morphemes as a basic unit in Korean sentiment analysis. Therefore, in this study, we use 'morpheme vector' as an input to a deep learning model rather than 'word vector' which is mainly used in English text. The morpheme vector refers to a vector representation for the morpheme and can be derived by applying an existent word vector derivation mechanism to the sentences divided into constituent morphemes.
By the way, here come some questions as follows. What is the desirable range of POS(Part-Of-Speech) tags when deriving morpheme vectors for improving the classification accuracy of a deep learning model? Is it proper to apply a typical word vector model which primarily relies on the form of words to Korean with a high homonym ratio? Will the text preprocessing such as correcting spelling or spacing errors affect the classification accuracy, especially when drawing morpheme vectors from Korean product reviews with a lot of grammatical mistakes and variations? We seek to find empirical answers to these fundamental issues, which may be encountered first when applying various deep learning models to Korean texts. As a starting point, we summarized these issues as three central research questions as follows. First, which is better effective, to use morpheme vectors from grammatically correct texts of other domain than the analysis target, or to use morpheme vectors from considerably ungrammatical texts of the same domain, as the initial input of a deep learning model? Second, what is an appropriate morpheme vector derivation method for Korean regarding the range of POS tags, homonym, text preprocessing, minimum frequency? Third, can we get a satisfactory level of classification accuracy when applying deep learning to Korean sentiment analysis? As an approach to these research questions, we generate various types of morpheme vectors reflecting the research questions and then compare the classification accuracy through a non-static CNN(Convolutional Neural Network) model taking in the morpheme vectors. As for training and test datasets, Naver Shopping's 17,260 cosmetics product reviews are used. To derive morpheme vectors, we use data from the same domain as the target one and data from other domain; Naver shopping's about 2 million cosmetics product reviews and 520,000 Naver News data arguably corresponding to Google’s News data.
The six primary sets of morpheme vectors constructed in this study differ in terms of the following three criteria. First, they come from two types of data source; Naver news of high grammatical correctness and Naver shopping’s cosmetics product reviews of low grammatical correctness. Second, they are distinguished in the degree of data preprocessing, namely, only splitting sentences or up to additional spelling and spacing corrections after sentence separation. Third, they vary concerning the form of input fed into a word vector model; whether the morphemes themselves are entered into a word vector model or with their POS tags attached. The morpheme vectors further vary depending on the consideration range of POS tags, the minimum frequency of morphemes included, and the random initialization range. All morpheme vectors are derived through CBOW(Continuous Bag-Of-Words) model with the context window 5 and the vector dimension 300.
It seems that utilizing the same domain text even with a lower degree of grammatical correctness, performing spelling and spacing corrections as well as sentence splitting, and incorporating morphemes of any POS tags including incomprehensible category lead to the better classification accuracy. The POS tag attachment, which is devised for the high proportion of homonyms in Korean, and the minimum frequency standard for the morpheme to be included seem not to have any definite influence on the classification accuracy.
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CNN을 적용한 한국어 상품평 감성분석: 형태소 임베딩을 중심으로
박현정 (이화여자대학교 경영연구소)
송민채 (이화여자대학교 빅데이터분석학)
신경식 (이화여자대학교 경영대학 )
Keywords
감성분석, 형태소 벡터, 단어 벡터, 딥러닝, CNN, CBOW
Abstract
고객과 대중의 니즈를 파악하기 위한 감성분석의 중요성이 커지면서 최근 영어 텍스트를 대상으로 다양한 딥러닝 모델들이 소개되고 있다. 본 연구는 영어와 한국어의 언어적인 차이에 주목하여 딥러닝 모델을 한국어 상품평 텍스트의 감성분석에 적용할 때 부딪히게 되는 기본적인 이슈들에 대하여 실증적으로 살펴본다. 즉, 딥러닝모델의 입력으로 사용되는 단어 벡터(word vector)를 형태소 수준에서 도출하고, 여러 형태소 벡터(morpheme vector) 도출 대안에 따라 감성분석의 정확도가 어떻게 달라지는지를 비정태적(non-static) CNN(Convolutional Neural Network) 모델을 사용하여 검증한다. 형태소 벡터 도출 대안은 CBOW(Continuous Bag-Of-Words)를 기본적으로 적용하고, 입력 데이터의 종류, 문장 분리와 맞춤법 및 띄어쓰기 교정, 품사 선택, 품사 태그 부착, 고려형태소의 최소 빈도수 등과 같은 기준에 따라 달라진다.
형태소 벡터 도출 시, 문법 준수도가 낮더라도 감성분석 대상과 같은 도메인의 텍스트를 사용하고, 문장 분리 외에 맞춤법 및 띄어쓰기 전처리를 하며, 분석불능 범주를 포함한 모든 품사를 고려할 때 감성분석의 분류정확도가 향상되는 결과를 얻었다. 동음이의어 비율이 높은 한국어 특성 때문에 고려한 품사 태그 부착 방안과포함할 형태소에 대한 최소 빈도수 기준은 뚜렷한 영향이 없는 것으로 나타났다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Park, H.-j. ., M.-c. Song, and K.-s. Shin, "Sentiment Analysis of Korean Reviews Using CNN: Focusing on Morpheme Embedding", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 24, No. 2 (2018), 59~83.

IEEE Style
Hyun-jung Park, Min-chae Song, and Kyung-shik Shin, "Sentiment Analysis of Korean Reviews Using CNN: Focusing on Morpheme Embedding", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 59~83, 2018.

ACM Style
Park, H.-j. ., Song, M.-c., and Shin, K.-s., 2018. Sentiment Analysis of Korean Reviews Using CNN: Focusing on Morpheme Embedding. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 24, 2, 59--83.
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@article{Park:JIIS:2018:726,
author = {Park, Hyun-jung and Song, Min-chae and Shin, Kyung-shik},
title = {Sentiment Analysis of Korean Reviews Using CNN: Focusing on Morpheme Embedding},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {June 2018},
volume = {24},
number = {2},
month = Jun,
year = {2018},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {59--83},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13088/jiis.2018.24.2.059 },
doi = {10.13088/jiis.2018.24.2.059},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Sentiment Analysis, Morpheme Vector, Word Vector, Deep Learning, CNN and CBOW },
}
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%A Hyun-jung Park
%A Min-chae Song
%A Kyung-shik Shin
%T Sentiment Analysis of Korean Reviews Using CNN: Focusing on Morpheme Embedding
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 24
%N 2
%P 59-83
%D 2018
%R 10.13088/jiis.2018.24.2.059
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society