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The Role of Open Innovation for SME’s R&D Success
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In-Jin Yoo (Graduate School of Business IT, Kookmin University)
Bong-Goon Seo (Graduate School of Business IT, Kookmin University)
Do-Hyung Park (College of Business Administration / Graduate School of Business IT, Kookmin University)
Vol. 24, No. 3, Page: 89 ~ 117
SME, R&D, Open Innovation, R&D Performance
The Korean companies are intensifying competition with not only domestic companies but also foreign companies in globalization. In this environment, it is essential activities not only for large companies but also Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to get and develop the core competency. Particularly, SMEs that are inferior to resources of various aspects, such as financial resources etc., can make innovation through effective R&D investment. And then, SMEs can occupy a competency and can be survive at the environment.
Conventionally, the method of "self-development" by using only the internal resources of the company has been dominant. Recently, however, R&D method through cooperation, also called "Open Innovation", is emerging. Especially SMEs are relatively short of available internal resources. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize technology and resources through cooperation with external companies(such as joint development or contract development etc.) rather than self-development R&D.
In this context, we confirmed the effect of SMEs’ factors on sales in Korea. Specifically, the factors that SMEs hold are classified as 'Technical characteristic', 'Company competency', and 'R&D activity' and analyzed how they influence the sales achieved as a result of R&D. The analysis was based on a two-year statistical survey conducted by the Korean government. In addition, we confirmed the influence of the factors on the sales according to the R&D method(Self-Development vs. Open Innovation), and also observed the influence change in 29 industrial categories.
The results of the study are summarized as follows: First, regression analysis shows that twelve factors of SMEs have a significant effect on sales. Specifically, 15 factors included in the analysis, 12 factors excluding 3 factors were found to have significant influence. In the technical characteristic, 'imitation period' and 'product life cycle' of the technology were confirmed. In the company competency, 'R&D led person', 'researcher number', 'intellectual property registration status', 'number of R&D attempts', and 'ratio of success to trial' were confirmed. The R&D activity was found to have a significant impact on all included factors. Second, the influence of factors on the R&D method was confirmed, and the change was confirmed in four factors. In addition, these factors were found that have different effects on sales according to the R&D method. Specifically, ‘researcher number’, ‘number of R&D attempts’, ‘performance compensation system’, and ‘R&D investment’ were found to have significant moderate effects. In other words, the moderating effect of open innovation was confirmed for four factors. Third, on the industrial classification, it is confirmed that different factors have a significant influence on each industrial classification. At this point, it was confirmed that at least one factor, up to nine factors had a significant effect on the sales according to the industrial classification. Furthermore, different moderate effects have been confirmed in the industrial classification and R&D method. In the moderate effect, up to eight significant moderate effects were confirmed according to the industrial classification. In particular, 'R&D investment' and 'performance compensation system' were confirmed to be the most common moderating effect by each 12 times and 11 times in all industrial classification.
This study provides the following suggestions: First, it is necessary for SMEs to determine the R&D method in consideration of the characteristics of the technology to be R&D as well as the enterprise competency and the R&D activity. In addition, there is a need to identify and concentrate on the factors that increase sales in R&D decisions, which are mainly affected by the industry classification to which the company belongs. Second, governments that support SMEs’ R&D need to provide guidelines that are fit to their situation. It is necessary to differentiate the support for the company considering various factors such as technology and R&D purpose for their effective budget execution. Finally, based on the results of this study, we urge the need to reconsider the effectiveness of existing SME support policies.
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중소기업 R&D 성공에 있어서 개방형 혁신의 효과에 관한 연구
유인진 (국민대학교 비즈니스 IT 전문대학원)
서봉군 (국민대학교 비즈니스 IT 전문대학원)
박도형 (국민대학교 비즈니스 IT 전문대학원)
중소기업, R&D, 개방형 혁신, R&D 성과
본 연구는 2개년 중소기업 기술통계조사에 근거하여 기업의 기술특성, 기업역량, R&D 활동에 해당하는 요인
들이 R&D를 통한 매출액에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지에 대해 조절회귀 분석을 수행하였다. 아울러 개발 방식에
따라 각 요인의 영향력 변화를 확인하고, 29개 산업에 대하여 동일한 분석을 진행하였다. 주요 연구결과는 다음
과 같다. 첫째, 분석 결과 12개 요인이 매출액에 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 기술개발 방식에 따른 요인의 영향력 변화를 분석한 결과, 4개의 요인에서 유의한 변화가 확인되었고, 이들 각의 요인에서 기술개발 방식에 따른 성과 창출에 서로 다른 조절효과가 확인되었다. 셋째, 매출액 영향 요인을 산업별로 검증한
결과, 산업별 최대 9개까지 성공요인을 보유하며, 산업별 개발방식에 따른 요인의 영향력 변화 분석 결과 산업
별 최대 8개까지 유의한 변화가 확인되었다. 본 연구는 다음의 시사점을 가진다. 첫째, 중소기업은 기술개발 관
련 의사결정시 해당 기업이 속한 산업에서 매출 증대 요인이 무엇인지 파악하여 집중할 필요가 있다. 또한 개발
하는 기술의 특성, 기업의 역량, R&D 활동수준 등을 고려하여 기술개발방식을 결정하여야 한다. 둘째, 중소기
업을 지원하는 기관에서는 관련 예산을 효과적으로 집행하기 위해 지원 기업 평가 시, 지원과제 및 지원목적에
따라 평가항목을 달리하는 상황별 가이드라인을 수립해야 한다. 특히 도출된 결과를 토대로 개방형 혁신 기업
에 대한 맞춤형 지원 등을 통해 정책 효과성을 제고할 필요가 있다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Yoo, I.-J., B.-G. Seo, and D.-H. Park, "The Role of Open Innovation for SME’s R&D Success ", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018), 89~117.

IEEE Style
In-Jin Yoo, Bong-Goon Seo, and Do-Hyung Park, "The Role of Open Innovation for SME’s R&D Success ", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 89~117, 2018.

ACM Style
Yoo, I.-J., Seo, B.-G., and Park, D.-H., 2018. The Role of Open Innovation for SME’s R&D Success . Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 24, 3, 89--117.
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author = {Yoo, In-Jin and Seo, Bong-Goon and Park, Do-Hyung},
title = {The Role of Open Innovation for SME’s R&D Success },
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {September 2018},
volume = {24},
number = {3},
month = Sep,
year = {2018},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {89--117},
url = { },
doi = {10.13088/jiis.2018.24.3.089},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { SME, R&D, Open Innovation and R&D Performance },
%0 Journal Article
%1 739
%A In-Jin Yoo
%A Bong-Goon Seo
%A Do-Hyung Park
%T The Role of Open Innovation for SME’s R&D Success
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 24
%N 3
%P 89-117
%D 2018
%R 10.13088/jiis.2018.24.3.089
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society