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Corporate Default Prediction Model Using Deep Learning Time Series Algorithm, RNN and LSTM
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Sungjae Cha (AIZEN GLOBAL)
Jungseok Kang (AIZEN GLOBAL)
Vol. 24, No. 4, Page: 1 ~ 32
10.13088/jiis.2018.24.4.001
Keywords
Optimal Feature Selection, Lasso Regression, Deep Learning Time Series Algorithm, Corporate Bankruptcy, RNN, LSTM
Abstract
In addition to stakeholders including managers, employees, creditors, and investors of bankrupt companies, corporate defaults have a ripple effect on the local and national economy. Before the Asian financial crisis, the Korean government only analyzed SMEs and tried to improve the forecasting power of a default prediction model, rather than developing various corporate default models. As a result, even large corporations called 'chaebol enterprises' become bankrupt. Even after that, the analysis of past corporate defaults has been focused on specific variables, and when the government restructured immediately after the global financial crisis, they only focused on certain main variables such as 'debt ratio'.
A multifaceted study of corporate default prediction models is essential to ensure diverse interests, to avoid situations like the 'Lehman Brothers Case' of the global financial crisis, to avoid total collapse in a single moment.
The key variables used in corporate defaults vary over time. This is confirmed by Beaver (1967, 1968) and Altman’s (1968) analysis that Deakins'(1972) study shows that the major factors affecting corporate failure have changed. In Grice's (2001) study, the importance of predictive variables was also found through Zmijewski’s (1984) and Ohlson’s (1980) models. However, the studies that have been carried out in the past use static models. Most of them do not consider the changes that occur in the course of time. Therefore, in order to construct consistent prediction models, it is necessary to compensate the time-dependent bias by means of a time series analysis algorithm reflecting dynamic change.
Based on the global financial crisis, which has had a significant impact on Korea, this study is conducted using 10 years of annual corporate data from 2000 to 2009. Data are divided into training data, validation data, and test data respectively, and are divided into 7, 2, and 1 years respectively. In order to construct a consistent bankruptcy model in the flow of time change, we first train a time series deep learning algorithm model using the data before the financial crisis (2000~2006). The parameter tuning of the existing model and the deep learning time series algorithm is conducted with validation data including the financial crisis period (2007~2008). As a result, we construct a model that shows similar pattern to the results of the learning data and shows excellent prediction power. After that, each bankruptcy prediction model is restructured by integrating the learning data and validation data again (2000 ~ 2008), applying the optimal parameters as in the previous validation. Finally, each corporate default prediction model is evaluated and compared using test data (2009) based on the trained models over nine years. Then, the usefulness of the corporate default prediction model based on the deep learning time series algorithm is proved. In addition, by adding the Lasso regression analysis to the existing methods (multiple discriminant analysis, logit model) which select the variables, it is proved that the deep learning time series algorithm model based on the three bundles of variables is useful for robust corporate default prediction.
The definition of bankruptcy used is the same as that of Lee (2015). Independent variables include financial information such as financial ratios used in previous studies. Multivariate discriminant analysis, logit model, and Lasso regression model are used to select the optimal variable group. The influence of the Multivariate discriminant analysis model proposed by Altman (1968), the Logit model proposed by Ohlson (1980), the non-time series machine learning algorithms, and the deep learning time series algorithms are compared.
In the case of corporate data, there are limitations of 'nonlinear variables', 'multi-collinearity' of variables, and 'lack of data'. While the logit model is nonlinear, the Lasso regression model solves the multi-collinearity problem, and the deep learning time series algorithm using the variable data generation method complements the lack of data.
Big Data Technology, a leading technology in the future, is moving from simple human analysis, to automated AI analysis, and finally towards future intertwined AI applications. Although the study of the corporate default prediction model using the time series algorithm is still in its early stages, deep learning algorithm is much faster than regression analysis at corporate default prediction modeling. Also, it is more effective on prediction power. Through the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the current government and other overseas governments are working hard to integrate the system in everyday life of their nation and society.
Yet the field of deep learning time series research for the financial industry is still insufficient. This is an initial study on deep learning time series algorithm analysis of corporate defaults. Therefore it is hoped that it will be used as a comparative analysis data for non-specialists who start a study combining financial data and deep learning time series algorithm.
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딥러닝 시계열 알고리즘 적용한 기업부도예측모형 유용성 검증
차성재 (에이젠글로벌)
강정석 (에이젠글로벌)
Keywords
최적 변수 선별, Lasso 회귀분석, 딥러닝 시계열 알고리즘, 기업부도, RNN, LSTM
Abstract
본 연구는 경제적으로 국내에 큰 영향을 주었던 글로벌 금융위기를 기반으로 총 10년의 연간 기업데이터를이용한다. 먼저 시대 변화 흐름에 일관성있는 부도 모형을 구축하는 것을 목표로 금융위기 이전(2000~2006년) 의 데이터를 학습한다. 이후 매개 변수 튜닝을 통해 금융위기 기간이 포함(2007~2008년)된 유효성 검증 데이터가 학습데이터의 결과와 비슷한 양상을 보이고, 우수한 예측력을 가지도록 조정한다. 이후 학습 및 유효성 검증데이터를 통합(2000~2008년)하여 유효성 검증 때와 같은 매개변수를 적용하여 모형을 재구축하고, 결과적으로최종 학습된 모형을 기반으로 시험 데이터(2009년) 결과를 바탕으로 딥러닝 시계열 알고리즘 기반의 기업부도예측 모형이 유용함을 검증한다.
부도에 대한 정의는 Lee(2015) 연구와 동일하게 기업의 상장폐지 사유들 중 실적이 부진했던 경우를 부도로선정한다. 독립변수의 경우, 기존 선행연구에서 이용되었던 재무비율 변수를 비롯한 기타 재무정보를 포함한다.
이후 최적의 변수군을 선별하는 방식으로 다변량 판별분석, 로짓 모형, 그리고 Lasso 회귀분석 모형을 이용한다. 기업부도예측 모형 방법론으로는 Altman(1968)이 제시했던 다중판별분석 모형, Ohlson(1980)이 제시한 로짓모형, 그리고 비시계열 기계학습 기반 부도예측모형과 딥러닝 시계열 알고리즘을 이용한다.
기업 데이터의 경우, ‘비선형적인 변수들’, 변수들의 ‘다중 공선성 문제’, 그리고 ‘데이터 수 부족’이란 한계점이 존재한다. 이에 로짓 모형은 ‘비선형성’을, Lasso 회귀분석 모형은 ‘다중 공선성 문제’를 해결하고, 가변적인데이터 생성 방식을 이용하는 딥러닝 시계열 알고리즘을 접목함으로서 데이터 수가 부족한 점을 보완하여 연구를 진행한다.
현 정부를 비롯한 해외 정부에서는 4차 산업혁명을 통해 국가 및 사회의 시스템, 일상생활 전반을 아우르기위해 힘쓰고 있다. 즉, 현재는 다양한 산업에 이르러 빅데이터를 이용한 딥러닝 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있지만, 금융 산업을 위한 연구분야는 아직도 미비하다. 따라서 이 연구는 기업 부도에 관하여 딥러닝 시계열 알고리즘 분석을 진행한 초기 논문으로서, 금융 데이터와 딥러닝 시계열 알고리즘을 접목한 연구를 시작하는 비 전공자에게 비교분석 자료로 쓰이기를 바란다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Cha, S., and J. Kang, "Corporate Default Prediction Model Using Deep Learning Time Series Algorithm, RNN and LSTM", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 24, No. 4 (2018), 1~32.

IEEE Style
Sungjae Cha, and Jungseok Kang, "Corporate Default Prediction Model Using Deep Learning Time Series Algorithm, RNN and LSTM", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1~32, 2018.

ACM Style
Cha, S., and Kang, J., 2018. Corporate Default Prediction Model Using Deep Learning Time Series Algorithm, RNN and LSTM. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 24, 4, 1--32.
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@article{Cha:JIIS:2018:747,
author = {Cha, Sungjae and Kang, Jungseok},
title = {Corporate Default Prediction Model Using Deep Learning Time Series Algorithm, RNN and LSTM},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {December 2018},
volume = {24},
number = {4},
month = Dec,
year = {2018},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {1--32},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13088/jiis.2018.24.4.001 },
doi = {10.13088/jiis.2018.24.4.001},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Optimal Feature Selection, Lasso Regression, Deep Learning Time Series Algorithm, Corporate Bankruptcy, RNN and LSTM
},
}
%0 Journal Article
%1 747
%A Sungjae Cha
%A Jungseok Kang
%T Corporate Default Prediction Model Using Deep Learning Time Series Algorithm, RNN and LSTM
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 24
%N 4
%P 1-32
%D 2018
%R 10.13088/jiis.2018.24.4.001
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society