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Development Process for User Needs-based Chatbot: Focusing on Design Thinking Methodology
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Museong Kim (Kookmin University)
Bong-Goon Seo (Graduate School of Business IT, Kookmin University)
Do-Hyung Park (Graduate School of Business IT, Kookmin University)
Vol. 25, No. 3, Page: 221 ~ 238
Keywords
Chatbot, Design Thinking Methodology, User Experience, Cosmetic, Chabot Development Process
Abstract
Recently, companies and public institutions have been actively introducing chatbot services in the field of customer counseling and response. The introduction of the chatbot service not only brings labor cost savings to companies and organizations, but also enables rapid communication with customers.
Advances in data analytics and artificial intelligence are driving the growth of these chatbot services. The current chatbot can understand users’ questions and offer the most appropriate answers to questions through machine learning and deep learning. The advancement of chatbot core technologies such as NLP, NLU, and NLG has made it possible to understand words, understand paragraphs, understand meanings, and understand emotions. For this reason, the value of chatbots continues to rise.
However, technology-oriented chatbots can be inconsistent with what users want inherently, so chatbots need to be addressed in the area of the user experience, not just in the area of technology. The Fourth Industrial Revolution represents the importance of the User Experience as well as the advancement of artificial intelligence, big data, cloud, and IoT technologies. The development of IT technology and the importance of user experience have provided people with a variety of environments and changed lifestyles.
This means that experiences in interactions with people, services(products) and the environment become very important. Therefore, it is time to develop a user needs-based services(products) that can provide new experiences and values to people.
This study proposes a chatbot development process based on user needs by applying the design thinking approach, a representative methodology in the field of user experience, to chatbot development.
The process proposed in this study consists of four steps. The first step is ‘setting up knowledge domain’ to set up the chatbot's expertise. Accumulating the information corresponding to the configured domain and deriving the insight is the second step, 'Knowledge accumulation and Insight identification'. The third step is ‘Opportunity Development and Prototyping’. It is going to start full-scale development at this stage.
Finally, the ‘User Feedback’ step is to receive feedback from users on the developed prototype. This creates a "user needs-based service (product)" that meets the process’s objectives.
Beginning with the fact gathering through user observation, Perform the process of abstraction to derive insights and explore opportunities. Next, it is expected to develop a chatbot that meets the user's needs through the process of materializing to structure the desired information and providing the function that fits the user's mental model.
In this study, we present the actual construction examples for the domestic cosmetics market to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed process. The reason why it chose the domestic cosmetics market as its case is because it shows strong characteristics of users' experiences, so it can quickly understand responses from users.
This study has a theoretical implication in that it proposed a new chatbot development process by incorporating the design thinking methodology into the chatbot development process. This research is different from the existing chatbot development research in that it focuses on user experience, not technology. It also has practical implications in that companies or institutions propose realistic methods that can be applied immediately. In particular, the process proposed in this study can be accessed and utilized by anyone, since 'user needs-based chatbots' can be developed even if they are not experts.
This study suggests that further studies are needed because only one field of study was conducted.
In addition to the cosmetics market, additional research should be conducted in various fields in which the user experience appears, such as the smart phone and the automotive market. Through this, it will be able to be reborn as a general process necessary for 'development of chatbots centered on user experience, not technology centered.
Show/Hide Detailed Information in Korean
사용자 니즈 기반의 챗봇 개발 프로세스: 디자인 사고방법론을 중심으로
김무성 (국민대학교)
서봉군 (국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원)
박도형 (국민대학교 비즈니스IT전문대학원)
Keywords
챗봇, 디자인사고방법론, 사용자 경험, 화장품, 챗봇개발 프로세스
Abstract
최근, 기업 및 공공기관에서는 고객 상담과 응대 분야에 챗봇(Chatbot)서비스를 적극적으로 도입하고 있다.
챗봇 서비스의 도입은 기업이나 기관에게 있어서 인건비 절감 효과를 가져올 뿐만 아니라 고객과의 빠른 커뮤니케이션 효과를 기대할 수 있다. 데이터 분석 기술의 발전과 인공지능 기술의 고도화는 이런 챗봇 서비스의성장을 견인하고 있다. 하지만 기술중심으로 개발된 챗봇은 사용자가 내재적으로 원하는 바와 괴리가 있을 수있으므로, 챗봇이 단순히 기술의 영역이 아닌 사용자 경험의 영역에서 다루어질 필요가 있다. 본 연구는 사용자경험 분야의 대표적 방법론인 디자인 사고 접근법을 챗봇 개발에 적용하여, 사용자 니즈 기반의 챗봇 개발 프로세스를 제안하고자 한다. 사용자 관찰을 통해 팩트(Fact) 수집을 시작으로, 인사이트(Insight)를 도출하고 기회영역(Opportunity)을 발굴하는 추상화의 과정을 수행한다. 이어서 사용자의 멘탈모델에 맞는 기능을 제공하고원하는 정보를 구조화하는 구체화의 과정을 통해, 사용자의 니즈에 부합하는 챗봇을 개발할 수 있을 것으로 기대한다. 본 연구에서는 제안한 프로세스의 실효성을 확인하기 위하여 국내 화장품 시장을 대상으로 실제 구축사례를 함께 제시한다. 본 연구는 챗봇 개발 프로세스에 사용자 경험을 접목한 점에서 이론적 시사점을 가지며, 기업이나 기관이 바로 적용 가능한 현실적인 방법을 제안한다는 면에서 실무적 시사점을 가진다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Kim, M., B.-G. Seo, and D.-H. Park, "Development Process for User Needs-based Chatbot: Focusing on Design Thinking Methodology", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 25, No. 3 (2019), 221~238.

IEEE Style
Museong Kim, Bong-Goon Seo, and Do-Hyung Park, "Development Process for User Needs-based Chatbot: Focusing on Design Thinking Methodology", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 221~238, 2019.

ACM Style
Kim, M., Seo, B.-G., and Park, D.-H., 2019. Development Process for User Needs-based Chatbot: Focusing on Design Thinking Methodology. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 25, 3, 221--238.
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@article{Kim:JIIS:2019:789,
author = {Kim, Museong and Seo, Bong-Goon and Park, Do-Hyung},
title = {Development Process for User Needs-based Chatbot: Focusing on Design Thinking Methodology},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {September 2019},
volume = {25},
number = {3},
month = Sep,
year = {2019},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {221--238},
url = {},
doi = {},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Chatbot, Design Thinking Methodology, User Experience, Cosmetic and Chabot Development Process
},
}
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%A Bong-Goon Seo
%A Do-Hyung Park
%T Development Process for User Needs-based Chatbot: Focusing on Design Thinking Methodology
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 25
%N 3
%P 221-238
%D 2019
%R
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society