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Are you a Machine or Human?: The Effects of Human-likeness on Consumer Anthropomorphism Depending on Construal Level
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Junsik Lee (Graduate School of Business IT, Kookmin University)
Do-Hyung Park (Graduate School of Business IT/School of Management Information Systems, Kookmin University)
Vol. 27, No. 1, Page: 129 ~ 149
Keywords
Social Robot, Anthropomorphism, Construal Level Theory, Psychological Distance, Human-likeness
Abstract
Recently, interest in social robots that can socially interact with humans is increasing. Thanks to the development of ICT technology, social robots have become easier to provide personalized services and emotional connection to individuals, and the role of social robots is drawing attention as a means to solve modern social problems and the resulting decline in the quality of individual lives. Along with the interest in social robots, the spread of social robots is also increasing significantly. Many companies are introducing robot products to the market to target various target markets, but so far there is no clear trend leading the market. Accordingly, there are more and more attempts to differentiate robots through the design of social robots. In particular, anthropomorphism has been studied importantly in social robot design, and many approaches have been attempted to anthropomorphize social robots to produce positive effects. However, there is a lack of research that systematically describes the mechanism by which anthropomorphism for social robots is formed. Most of the existing studies have focused on verifying the positive effects of the anthropomorphism of social robots on consumers. In addition, the formation of anthropomorphism of social robots may vary depending on the individual's motivation or temperament, but there are not many studies examining this. A vague understanding of anthropomorphism makes it difficult to derive design optimal points for shaping the anthropomorphism of social robots. The purpose of this study is to verify the mechanism by which the anthropomorphism of social robots is formed. This study confirmed the effect of the human-likeness of social robots(Within-subjects) and the construal level of consumers(Between-subjects) on the formation of anthropomorphism through an experimental study of 3×2 mixed design. Research hypotheses on the mechanism by which anthropomorphism is formed were presented, and the hypotheses were verified by analyzing data from a sample of 206 people. The first hypothesis in this study is that the higher the human-likeness of the robot, the higher the level of anthropomorphism for the robot. Hypothesis 1 was supported by a one-way repeated measures ANOVA and a post hoc test. The second hypothesis in this study is that depending on the construal level of consumers, the effect of human-likeness on the level of anthropomorphism will be different. First, this study predicts that the difference in the level of anthropomorphism as human-likeness increases will be greater under high construal condition than under low construal condition.Second, If the robot has no human-likeness, there will be no difference in the level of anthropomorphism according to the construal level. Thirdly,If the robot has low human-likeness, the low construal level condition will make the robot more anthropomorphic than the high construal level condition. Finally, If the robot has high human-likeness, the high construal levelcondition will make the robot more anthropomorphic than the low construal level condition. We performed two-way repeated measures ANOVA to test these hypotheses, and confirmed that the interaction effect of human-likeness and construal level was significant. Further analysis to specifically confirm interaction effect has also provided results in support of our hypotheses. The analysis shows that the human-likeness of the robot increases the level of anthropomorphism of social robots, and the effect of human-likeness on anthropomorphism varies depending on the construal level of consumers. This study has implications in that it explains the mechanism by which anthropomorphism is formed by considering the human-likeness, which is the design attribute of social robots, and the construal level of consumers, which is the way of thinking of individuals. We expect to use the findings of this study as the basis for design optimization for the formation of anthropomorphism in social robots.
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Are you a Machine or Human?: 소셜 로봇의 인간 유사성과 소비자 해석수준이 의인화에 미치는 영향
이준식 (국민대학교)
박도형 (국민대학교)
Keywords
소셜 로봇, 의인화, 해석수준이론, 심리적 거리, 인간유사성
Abstract
최근 인간과 사회적으로 상호작용할 수 있는 소셜 로봇(Social Robot)에 대한 관심이 커지고 있다. ICT 기술 발전에 힘입어 소셜 로봇이 개인에게 맞춤형 서비스와 정서적 교감을 제공하기 쉬워졌으며, 현대의 사회문제들과 이로 인한 개인의 삶의 질 저하를 해소하기 위한 수단으로 소셜 로봇의 역할이 주목받고 있다. 소셜 로봇에 대한 관심에 힘입어 소셜 로봇 보급 또한 크게 늘고 있다. 많은 기업이 다양한 목표시장을 겨냥하기 위한 로봇 제품들을 시장에 선보이고 있으나, 현재까지 시장을 선도하는 명확한 흐름은 부재하다. 이에 따라 소셜 로봇의 디자인을 통해 로봇을 차별화하고자 하는 시도가 늘고 있다. 특히 의인화는 소셜 로봇 디자인에서 중요하게 연구되고 있으며, 소셜 로봇을 의인화하여 긍정적인 효과를 발현 하려는 접근이 많이 시도되었다. 그러나 소셜 로봇에 대한 의인화가 형성되는 메커니즘을 체계적으로 설명하는 연구는 부족하다. 의인화에 대한 모호한 이해는 소셜 로봇의 의인화를 형성하기 위한 디자인 최적점의 도출을 어렵게 하고 있다. 본 연구는 소셜 로봇의 의인화가 형성되는 메커니즘을 검증하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 본 연구는 3×2 Mixed Design의 실 험 연구를 통해 소셜 로봇의 인간 유사성(Human-likeness)과 개인의 해석수준(Construal Level)이 의인화 형성에 미치는 영향을 확인하였다. 의인화가 형성되는 메커니즘에 대한 6개의 연구 가설을 제시하고, 206명 표본의 데이터를 분석하여 가설을 검증하였다. 분석 결과 소셜 로봇의 인간 유사성 수준에 따라 로봇 의인화 수준이 높아지며, 소비자 해석수준에 따라 인간 유사성이 의인화에 미치는 영향이 다르게 나타남을 확인하였다. 본 연구는 소셜 로봇의 디자인 속성인 인간 유사성과 개인의 사고방식인 해석수준을 함께 고려하여 의인화가 형성되는 메커니즘을 설명하였다는 점에서 시사점이 있다. 본 연구의 결과를 소셜로봇 의인화 형성을 위한 디자인 최적화의 기준으로 활용할 수 있을 것으로 기대한다.
Cite this article
JIIS Style
Lee, J., and D.-H. Park, "Are you a Machine or Human?: The Effects of Human-likeness on Consumer Anthropomorphism Depending on Construal Level", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, Vol. 27, No. 1 (2021), 129~149.

IEEE Style
Junsik Lee, and Do-Hyung Park, "Are you a Machine or Human?: The Effects of Human-likeness on Consumer Anthropomorphism Depending on Construal Level", Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 129~149, 2021.

ACM Style
Lee, J., and Park, D.-H., 2021. Are you a Machine or Human?: The Effects of Human-likeness on Consumer Anthropomorphism Depending on Construal Level. Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems. 27, 1, 129--149.
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@article{Lee:JIIS:2021:837,
author = {Lee, Junsik and Park, Do-Hyung},
title = {Are you a Machine or Human?: The Effects of Human-likeness on Consumer Anthropomorphism Depending on Construal Level},
journal = {Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems},
issue_date = {March 2021},
volume = {27},
number = {1},
month = Mar,
year = {2021},
issn = {2288-4866},
pages = {129--149},
url = {},
doi = {},
publisher = {Korea Intelligent Information System Society},
address = {Seoul, Republic of Korea},
keywords = { Social Robot, Anthropomorphism, Construal Level Theory, Psychological Distance and Human-likeness },
}
%0 Journal Article
%1 837
%A Junsik Lee
%A Do-Hyung Park
%T Are you a Machine or Human?: The Effects of Human-likeness on Consumer Anthropomorphism Depending on Construal Level
%J Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
%@ 2288-4866
%V 27
%N 1
%P 129-149
%D 2021
%R
%I Korea Intelligent Information System Society