Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems,
Vol. 14, No. 1, March 2008
Discovering Association Rules using Item Clustering on Frequent Pattern Network
Kyeong Jin Oh, Jin Guk Jung, Inay Ha, and Geun Sik Jo
Vol. 14, No. 1, Page: 1 ~ 17
Keywords : Frequent Pattern Network, Cluster, Association Rules
Data mining is defined as the process of discovering meaningful and useful pattern in large volumes of data. In particular, finding associations rules between items in a database of customer transactions has become an important thing. Some data structures and algorithms had been proposed for storing meaningful information compressed from an original database to find frequent itemsets since Apriori algorithm. Though existing method find all association rules, we must have a lot of process to analyze association rules because there are too many rules. In this paper, we propose a new data structure, called a Frequent Pattern Network (FPN), which represents items as vertices and 2-itemsets as edges of the network. In order to utilize FPN, We constitute FPN using item's frequency. And then we use a clustering method to group the vertices on the network into clusters so that the intracluster similarity is maximized and the intercluster similarity is minimized. We generate association rules based on clusters. Our experiments showed accuracy of clustering items on the network using confidence, correlation and edge weight similarity methods. And We generated association rules using clusters and compare traditional and our method. From the results, the confidence similarity had a strong influence than others on the frequent pattern network. And FPN had a flexibility to minimum support value.
Balanced Scorecard using System Dynamics for Evaluating IT Investment
Sung Won Baek, Jung eun Ju, and Sang Hoe Koo
Vol. 14, No. 1, Page: 19 ~ 34
Keywords : IT Investment Evaluation, Balanced Scorecard, System Dynamics
IT investment is usually very costly and takes a long time to get the results out of investment. However, most of currently available evaluation methods for IT investment are based upon short-term effects, hence their results are not fully trustworthy. In addition, those methods commonly consider only financial aspects such as ROI. For more reliable evaluation, it is necessary to consider non-financial factors such as system utilization, customer satisfaction, public relations, and so on, as well as financial factors. In this research, we propose an evaluation method that can evaluate both financial and non-financial aspects on a long-term base. For this purpose, we employed the research results developed in System dynamics and Balanced scorecard. System dynamics is useful in analyzing long term behavior of a given system, and Balanced scorecard is useful for evaluating both financial and non-financial aspects. We demonstrated the usefulness of our method by applying it to the evaluation of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) investment in a distribution and retail industry. From this application, we found that RFID investment may not be rewarding in the short term, but is sure to be returning the income relative to its investment in the long run.
Representation and Reasoning of User Context Using Fuzzy OWL
Jong Soo Sohn, and In Jeong Chung
Vol. 14, No. 1, Page: 35 ~ 45
Keywords : Semantic Web, Ontology, Ubiquitous, Fuzzy, Fuzzy
In order to constructan ubiquitous computing environment, it is necessary to develop a technology that can recognize users and circumstances. In this regard, the question of recognizing and expressing user Context regardless of computer and language types has emerged as an important task under the heterogeneous distributed processing system. As a means to solve this task of representing user Context in the ubiquitous environment, this paper proposes to describe user Context as the most similar form of human thinking by using semantic web and fuzzy concept independentof language and computer types. Because the conventional method of representing Context using an usual collection has some limitations in expressing the environment of the real world, this paper has chosen to use Fuzzy OWL language, a fusion of fuzzy concept and standard web ontology language OWL. Accordingly, this paper suggests the following method. First we represent user contacted environmental information with a numerical value and states, and describe it with OWL. After that we transform the converted OWL Context into Fuzzy OWL. As a last step, we prove whether the automatic circumstances are possible in this procedure when we use fuzzy inference engine FiRE. With use the suggested method in this paper, we can describe Context which can be used in the ubiquitous computing environment. This method is more effective in expressing degree and status of the Context due to using fuzzy concept. Moreover, on the basis of the stated Context we can also infer the user contacted status of the environment. It is also possible to enable this system to function automatically in compliance with the inferred state.
Intelligent integration of Ontology and Multi-agents Coordination Mechanism in Ubiquitous Decision Support System Portal
Hyun Jung Lee, Kun Chang Lee, and Mye Sohn
Vol. 14, No. 1, Page: 47 ~ 66
Keywords : Intelligent Ontology Management Mechanism, Integrated Ontology View, Multi-agents Coordination Mechanism, Multi-agents System, U-fulfillment
This study is aimed at proposing a new type of ubiquitous decision support system (u-DSS) portal which is embedded with two important mechanisms like an intelligent ontology management module (i-OMM) and multi-agent coordination mechanism (MACM). The proposed portal provides timely decision support to the involved decision entities (represented as agents) by taking advantage of the two mechanisms embedded on the portal. The most important virtue of the proposed portal is that it can resolve two problems such as semantic discordance and data confliction which are occurring very often in an ubiquitous computing environment. Frequent requests of revising the already established decision information due to the rapid changes in decision entities' requirements require the extremely flexible and intelligent u-DSS vehicle like theproposed mechanism. In this sense, the i-OMM is designed to provide support to solving the semantic discordance in the way that the i-OMM virtually integrates ontology view (IOV) to integrate heterogeneous ontology among the agents engaged inubiquitous commerce situations. Then the i-OMM sends the IOV to the MACM to resolve the conflicts among the involved agents. The proposed u-DSS portal was applied to the u-fulfillment problem in which all the involved decisionagents need their own requirements to be satisfied seamlessly and timely. The experimental results show that the proposed u-DSS portal is very robust and promising in the field of u-DSS and context modeling.
A Study on the Conceptual Modeling and Implementation of a Semantic Search System
Dong Il Han, Hyeong In Kwon, and Hak Jin Chong
Vol. 14, No. 1, Page: 67 ~ 84
Keywords : Semantic Web, Semantic Search, Ontology
This paper proposes a design and realization for the semantic search system. The proposed model includes three Architecture Layers of a Semantic Search System ; (they are conceptually named as) the Knowledge Acquisition, the Knowledge Representation and the Knowledge Utilization. Each of these three Layers are designed to interactively work together, so as to maximize the users' information needs. The Knowledge Acquisition Layer includes index and storage of Semantic Metadata from various source of web contents(eg : text, image, multimedia and so on). The Knowledge Representation Layer includes the ontology schema and instance, through the process of semantic search by ontology based query expansion. Finally, the Knowledge Utilization Layer includes the users to search query intuitively, and get its results without the users'knowledge of semantic web language or ontology. So far as the design and the realization of the semantic search site is concerned, the proposedsemantic search system will offer useful implications to the researchers and practitioners so as to improve the research level to the commercial use.
A Study on the Influencing Factors of KMS Utilization in Military Organizations by analyzing current use of KMS in Korea Air Force
Gyoo Gun Lim, and Young Jong Lee
Vol. 14, No. 1, Page: 85 ~ 100
Keywords : KMS(Knowledge Management System), Knowledge Sharing, Military Organization, KMS Utilization
The digital economy era is a knowledge-based society. Many organizations have been establishing KMS (Knowledge Management System), and there are no exceptions in military ones. In this study, we analyze the influencing factors for KMS utilization in a military organization, which is a specialized one. For this purpose, we investigate the current status of KMS of ROKAF (Republic Of Korea Air Force), derive problems and issues, and try to find out solutions for the KMS utilization in military organizations by analyzing a survey. At first, we derive three characteristics of the military organization that affect the knowledge sharing : formalization of organization, trust of organizational culture, and top management's will. And we verified that the users, who recognize that the top management has the will for the knowledge sharing, have high recognition for the knowledge sharing and utilize KMS more than others. This study shows that it is very important for the top management to participate in the knowledge sharing voluntarily especially in the military organization.
Combining Collaborative, Diversity and Content Based Filtering for Recommendation System
Yoosin Kim, and Seung Ryul Jeong
Vol. 14, No. 1, Page: 101 ~ 115
Keywords : Recommendation System, Collaborative and Content Based Filtering, Diversity
Combining collaborative filtering with some other technique is most common in hybrid recommender systems. As many recommended items from collaborative filtering seem to be similar with respect to content, the collaborative-content hybrid system suffers in terms of quality recommendation and recommending new items as well. To alleviate such problem, we have developed a novel method that uses a diversity metric to select the dissimilar items among the recommended items from collaborative filtering, which together with the input when fed into content space let us improve and include new items in the recommendation. We present experimental results on movielens dataset that shows how our approach performs better than simple content-based system and naive hybrid system.
Cost-Based Directed Scheduling : Part II, An Inter-Job Cost Propagation Algorithm
Min Soo Suh, and Jae Kyeong Kim
Vol. 14, No. 1, Page: 117 ~ 129
The cost-based scheduling work has been done in both the Operations Research (OR) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) literature. To deal with more realistic problems, AI-based heuristic scheduling approach with non-regular performance measures has been studied. However, there has been little research effort to develop a full inter-job cost propagation algorithm (CPA) for different jobs having multiple downstream and upstream activities. Without such a CPA, decision-making in scheduling heuristics relies upon local, incomplete cost information, resulting in poor schedule performance from the overall cost minimizing objective. For such a purpose, we need two types of CPAs : intra-job CPA and inter-job CPA. Whenever there is a change in cost information of an activity in a job in the process of scheduling, the intra-job CPA updates cost curves of other activities connected through temporal constraints within the same job. The inter-job CPA extends cost propagation into other jobs connected through precedence relationships. By utilizing the cost information provided by CPAs, we propose cost-based scheduling heuristics that attempt to minimize the total schedule cost. This paper develops inter-job CPAs that create and update cost curves of each activity in each search state, and propagate cost information throughout a whole network of temporal constraints. Also we propose various cost-based scheduling heuristics that attempt to minimize the total schedule cost by utilizing the cost propagation algorithm.

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