Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems,
Vol. 17, No. 1, March 2011
Queuing Time Computation Algorithm for Sensor Data Processing in Real-time Ubiquitous Environment
Kyung-Woo Kang, and Oh-Byung Kwon
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 1 ~ 16
The real-time ubiquitous environment is required to be able to process a series of sensor data within limited time. The whole sensor data processing consists of several phases : getting data out of sensor, acquiring context and responding to users. The ubiquitous computing middleware is aware of the context using the input sensor data and a series of data from database or knowledge-base, makes a decision suitable for the context and shows a response according to the decision. When the real-time ubiquitous environment gets a set of sensor data as its input, it needs to be able to estimate the delay-time of the sensor data considering the available resource and the priority of it for scheduling a series of sensor data. Also the sensor data of higher priority can stop the processing of proceeding sensor data. The research field for such a decision making is not yet vibrant. In this paper, we propose a queuing time computation algorithm for sensor data processing in real-time ubiquitous environment.
Elicitation of Collective Intelligence by Fuzzy Relational Methodology
Young-Do Joo
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 17 ~ 35
The collective intelligence is a common-based production by the collaboration and competition of many peer individuals. In other words, it is the aggregation of individual intelligence to lead the wisdom of crowd. Recently, the utilization of the collective intelligence has become one of the emerging research areas, since it has been adopted as an important principle of web 2.0 to aim openness, sharing and participation. This paper introduces an approach to seek the collective intelligence by cognition of the relation and interaction among individual participants. It describes a methodology well-suited to evaluate individual intelligence in information retrieval and classification as an application field. The research investigates how to derive and represent such cognitive intelligence from individuals through the application of fuzzy relational theory to personal construct theory and knowledge grid technique. Crucial to this research is to implement formally and process interpretatively the cognitive knowledge of participants who makes the mutual relation and social interaction. What is needed is a technique to analyze cognitive intelligence structure in the form of Hasse diagram, which is an instantiation of this perceptive intelligence of human beings. The search for the collective intelligence requires a theory of similarity to deal with underlying problems; clustering of social subgroups of individuals through identification of individual intelligence and commonality among intelligence and then elicitation of collective intelligence to aggregate the congruence or sharing of all the participants of the entire group. Unlike standard approaches to similarity based on statistical techniques, the method presented employs a theory of fuzzy relational products with the related computational procedures to cover issues of similarity and dissimilarity.
Preference-based Supply Chain Partner Selection Using Fuzzy Ontology
Hae-Kyung Lee, Chang-Seong Ko, and Tai-Oun Kim
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 37 ~ 52
Keywords : OWL, SWRL
Supply chain management is a strategic thinking which enhances the value of supply chain and adapts more promptly for the changing environment. For the seamless partnership and value creation in supply chains, information and knowledge sharing and proper partner selection criteria must be applied. Thus, the partner selection criteria are critical to maintain product quality and reliability. Each part of a product is supplied by an appropriate supply partner. The criteria for selecting partners are technological capability, quality, price, consistency, etc. In reality, the criteria for partner selection may change according to the characteristics of the components. When the part is a core component, quality factor is the top priority compared to the price. For a standardized component, lower price has a higher priority. Sometimes, unexpected case occurs such as emergency order in which the preference may shift on the top. Thus, SCM partner selection criteria must be determined dynamically according to the characteristics of part and its context. The purpose of this research is to develop an OWL model for the supply chain partnership depending on its context and characteristics of the parts. The uncertainty of variable is tackled through fuzzy logic. The parts with preference of numerical value and context are represented using OWL. Part preference is converted into fuzzy membership function using fuzzy logic. For the ontology reasoning, SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language) is applied. For the implementation of proposed model, starter motor of an automobile is adopted. After the fuzzy ontology is constructed, the process of selecting preference-based supply partner for each part is presented.
Accelerometer-based Gesture Recognition for Robot Interface
Min-Su Jang, Yong-Suk Cho, Jae-Hong Kim, and Joo-Chan Sohn
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 53 ~ 69
Keywords : Human-Robot Interaction, Gesture Pattern Recognition, Accelerometer Signal Processing
Vision and voice-based technologies are commonly utilized for human-robot interaction. But it is widely recognized that the performance of vision and voice-based interaction systems is deteriorated by a large margin in the real-world situations due to environmental and user variances. Human users need to be very cooperative to get reasonable performance, which significantly limits the usability of the vision and voice-based human-robot interaction technologies. As a result, touch screens are still the major medium of human-robot interaction for the real-world applications. To empower the usability of robots for various services, alternative interaction technologies should be developed to complement the problems of vision and voice-based technologies. In this paper, we propose the use of accelerometer-based gesture interface as one of the alternative technologies, because accelerometers are effective in detecting the movements of human body, while their performance is not limited by environmental contexts such as lighting conditions or camera's field-of-view. Moreover, accelerometers are widely available nowadays in many mobile devices. We tackle the problem of classifying acceleration signal patterns of 26 English alphabets, which is one of the essential repertoires for the realization of education services based on robots. Recognizing 26 English handwriting patterns based on accelerometers is a very difficult task to take over because of its large scale of pattern classes and the complexity of each pattern. The most difficult problem that has been undertaken which is similar to our problem was recognizing acceleration signal patterns of 10 handwritten digits. Most previous studies dealt with pattern sets of 8~10 simple and easily distinguishable gestures that are useful for controlling home appliances, computer applications, robots etc. Good features are essential for the success of pattern recognition. To promote the discriminative power upon complex English alphabet patterns, we extracted 'motion trajectories' out of input acceleration signal and used them as the main feature. Investigative experiments showed that classifiers based on trajectory performed 3%~5% better than those with raw features e.g. acceleration signal itself or statistical figures. To minimize the distortion of trajectories, we applied a simple but effective set of smoothing filters and band-pass filters. It is well known that acceleration patterns for the same gesture is very different among different performers. To tackle the problem, online incremental learning is applied for our system to make it adaptive to the users' distinctive motion properties. Our system is based on instance-based learning (IBL) where each training sample is memorized as a reference pattern. Brute-force incremental learning in IBL continuously accumulates reference patterns, which is a problem because it not only slows down the classification but also downgrades the recall performance. Regarding the latter phenomenon, we observed a tendency that as the number of reference patterns grows, some reference patterns contribute more to the false positive classification. Thus, we devised an algorithm for optimizing the reference pattern set based on the positive and negative contribution of each reference pattern. The algorithm is performed periodically to remove reference patterns that have a very low positive contribution or a high negative contribution. Experiments were performed on 6500 gesture patterns collected from 50 adults of 30~50 years old. Each alphabet was performed 5 times per participant using $Nintendo{(R)}$ 수식 이미지 $Wii^{TM}$ 수식 이미지 remote. Acceleration signal was sampled in 100hz on 3 axes. Mean recall rate for all the alphabets was 95.48%. Some alphabets recorded very low recall rate and exhibited very high pairwise confusion rate. Major confusion pairs are D(88%) and P(74%), I(81%) and U(75%), N(88%) and W(100%). Though W was recalled perfectly, it contributed much to the false positive classification of N. By comparison with major previous results from VTT (96% for 8 control gestures), CMU (97% for 10 control gestures) and Samsung Electronics(97% for 10 digits and a control gesture), we could find that the performance of our system is superior regarding the number of pattern classes and the complexity of patterns. Using our gesture interaction system, we conducted 2 case studies of robot-based edutainment services. The services were implemented on various robot platforms and mobile devices including $iPhone^{TM}$ 수식 이미지. The participating children exhibited improved concentration and active reaction on the service with our gesture interface. To prove the effectiveness of our gesture interface, a test was taken by the children after experiencing an English teaching service. The test result showed that those who played with the gesture interface-based robot content marked 10% better score than those with conventional teaching. We conclude that the accelerometer-based gesture interface is a promising technology for flourishing real-world robot-based services and content by complementing the limits of today's conventional interfaces e.g. touch screen, vision and voice.
The Effect of Information Protection Control Activities on Organizational Effectiveness : Mediating Effects of Information Application
Gu-Heon Jeong, and Seung-Ryul Jeong
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 71 ~ 90
Keywords : Information Protection, Control Activities, Organizational Effectiveness
This study was designed to empirically analyze the effect of control activities(physical, managerial and technical securities) of information protection on organizational effectiveness and the mediating effects of information application. The result was summarized as follows. First, the effect of control activities(physical, technical and managerial securities) of information protection on organizational effectiveness showed that the physical, technical and managerial security factors have a significant positive effect on the organizational effectiveness(p < .01). Second, the effect of control activities(physical, technical and managerial securities) of information protection on information application showed that the technical and managerial security factors have a significant positive effect on the information application(p < .01). Third, the explanatory power of models, which additionally put the information protection control activities(physical, technical and managerial securities) and the interaction variables of information application to verify how the information protection control activities( physical, technical and managerial security controls) affecting the organizational effectiveness are mediated by the information application, was 50.6%~4.1% additional increase. And the interaction factor(${\beta}$ 수식 이미지 = .148, p < .01) of physical security and information application, and interaction factor(${\beta}$ 수식 이미지 = .196, p < .01) of physical security and information application among additionally-put interaction variables, were statistically significant(p < .01), indicating the information application has mediated the relationship between physical security and managerial security factors of control activities, and organizational effectiveness. As for results stated above, it was proven that physical, technical and managerial factors as internal control activities for information protection are main mechanisms affecting the organizational effectiveness very significantly by information application. In information protection control activities, the more all physical, technical and managerial security factors were efficiently well performed, the higher information application, and the more information application was efficiently controlled and mediated, which it was proven that all these three factors are variables for useful information application. It suggested that they have acted as promotion mechanisms showing a very significant result on the internal customer satisfaction of employees, the efficiency of information management and the reduction of risk in the organizational effectiveness for information protection by the mediating or difficulty of proved information application.
The Efficiency Analysis of CRM System in the Hotel Industry Using DEA
Tai-Young Kim, Kyung-Jin Seol, and Young-Dai Kwak
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 91 ~ 110
Keywords : CRM, IT Solution Efficiency, DEA
This paper analyzes the cases where the hotels have increased their services and enhanced their work process through IT solutions to cope with computerization globalization. Also the cases have been studies where national hotels use the CRM solution internally to respond effectively to customers requests, increase customer analysis, and build marketing strategies. In particular, this study discusses the introduction of the CRM solutions and CRM sales business and marketing services using a process for utilizing the presumed, CRM by introducing effective DEA(Data Envelopment Analysis). First, the comparison has done regarding the relative efficiency of L Company with the CCR model, then compared L Company's restaurants and facilities' effectiveness through BCC model. L Company reached a conclusion that it is important to precisely create and manage sales data which are the preliminary data for CRM, and for that reason it made it possible to save sales data generated by POS system on each sales performance database. In order to do that, it newly established Oracle POS system and LORIS POS system concerned with restaurants for food and beverage as well as rooms, and made it possible to stably generate and manage sales data and manage. Moreover, it set up a composite database to control comprehensively the results of work processes during a specific period by collecting customer registration information and made it possible to systematically control the information on sales performances. By establishing a system which unifies database and managing it comprehensively, impeccability of data has been greatly enhanced and a problem which generated asymmetric data could be thoroughly solved. Using data accumulated on the comprehensive database, sales data can be analyzed, categorized, classified through data mining engine imbedded in Polaris CRM and the results can be organized on data mart to provide them in the form of CRM application data. By transforming original sales data into forms which are easy to handle and saving them on data mart separately, it enabled acquiring well-organized data with ease when engaging in various marketing operations, holding a morning meeting and working on decision-making. By using summarized data at data mart, it was possible to process marketing operations such as telemarketing, direct mailing, internet marketing service and service product developments for perceived customers; moreover, information on customer perceptions which is one of CRM's end-products could feed back into the comprehensive database. This research was undertaken to find out how effectively CRM has been employed by comparing and analyzing the management performance of each enterprise site and store after introducing CRM to Hotel enterprises using DEA technique. According to the research results, efficiency evaluation for each site was calculated through input and output factors to find out comparative CRM system usage efficiency of L's Company four sites; moreover, with regard to stores, the sizes of workforce and budget application show a huge difference and so does the each store efficiency. Furthermore, by using the DEA technique, it could assess which sites have comparatively high efficiency and which don't by comparing and evaluating hotel enterprises IT project outcomes such as CRM introduction using the CCR model for each site of the related enterprises. By using the BCC model, it could comparatively evaluate the outcome of CRM usage at each store of A site, which is representative of L Company, and as a result, it could figure out which stores maintain high efficiency in using CRM and which don't. It analyzed the cases of CRM introduction at L Company, which is a hotel enterprise, and precisely evaluated them through DEA. L Company analyzed the customer analysis system by introducing CRM and achieved to provide customers identified through client analysis data with one to one tailored services. Moreover, it could come up with a plan to differentiate the service for customers who revisit by assessing customer discernment rate. As tasks to be solved in the future, it is required to do research on the process analysis which can lead to a specific outcome such as increased sales volumes by carrying on test marketing, target marketing using CRM. Furthermore, it is also necessary to do research on efficiency evaluation in accordance with linkages between other IT solutions such as ERP and CRM system.
Hierarchical Overlapping Clustering to Detect Complex Concepts
Su-Jeong Hong, and Joong-Min Choi
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 111 ~ 125
Keywords : Hierarchical Overlapping Clustering, Complex Concept Detection, Feature Selection
Clustering is a process of grouping similar or relevant documents into a cluster and assigning a meaningful concept to the cluster. By this process, clustering facilitates fast and correct search for the relevant documents by narrowing down the range of searching only to the collection of documents belonging to related clusters. For effective clustering, techniques are required for identifying similar documents and grouping them into a cluster, and discovering a concept that is most relevant to the cluster. One of the problems often appearing in this context is the detection of a complex concept that overlaps with several simple concepts at the same hierarchical level. Previous clustering methods were unable to identify and represent a complex concept that belongs to several different clusters at the same level in the concept hierarchy, and also could not validate the semantic hierarchical relationship between a complex concept and each of simple concepts. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a new clustering method that identifies and represents complex concepts efficiently. We developed the Hierarchical Overlapping Clustering (HOC) algorithm that modified the traditional Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering algorithm to allow overlapped clusters at the same level in the concept hierarchy. The HOC algorithm represents the clustering result not by a tree but by a lattice to detect complex concepts. We developed a system that employs the HOC algorithm to carry out the goal of complex concept detection. This system operates in three phases; 1) the preprocessing of documents, 2) the clustering using the HOC algorithm, and 3) the validation of semantic hierarchical relationships among the concepts in the lattice obtained as a result of clustering. The preprocessing phase represents the documents as x-y coordinate values in a 2-dimensional space by considering the weights of terms appearing in the documents. First, it goes through some refinement process by applying stopwords removal and stemming to extract index terms. Then, each index term is assigned a TF-IDF weight value and the x-y coordinate value for each document is determined by combining the TF-IDF values of the terms in it. The clustering phase uses the HOC algorithm in which the similarity between the documents is calculated by applying the Euclidean distance method. Initially, a cluster is generated for each document by grouping those documents that are closest to it. Then, the distance between any two clusters is measured, grouping the closest clusters as a new cluster. This process is repeated until the root cluster is generated. In the validation phase, the feature selection method is applied to validate the appropriateness of the cluster concepts built by the HOC algorithm to see if they have meaningful hierarchical relationships. Feature selection is a method of extracting key features from a document by identifying and assigning weight values to important and representative terms in the document. In order to correctly select key features, a method is needed to determine how each term contributes to the class of the document. Among several methods achieving this goal, this paper adopted the $x^2$ 수식 이미지?? statistics, which measures the dependency degree of a term t to a class c, and represents the relationship between t and c by a numerical value. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the HOC algorithm, a series of performance evaluation is carried out by using a well-known Reuter-21578 news collection. The result of performance evaluation showed that the HOC algorithm greatly contributes to detecting and producing complex concepts by generating the concept hierarchy in a lattice structure.
Recommending Core and Connecting Keywords of Research Area Using Social Network and Data Mining Techniques
In-Dong Cho, and Nam-Gyu Kim
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 127 ~ 138
Keywords : Data mining, Social Network, Recommendation System
The core service of most research portal sites is providing relevant research papers to various researchers that match their research interests. This kind of service may only be effective and easy to use when a user can provide correct and concrete information about a paper such as the title, authors, and keywords. However, unfortunately, most users of this service are not acquainted with concrete bibliographic information. It implies that most users inevitably experience repeated trial and error attempts of keyword-based search. Especially, retrieving a relevant research paper is more difficult when a user is novice in the research domain and does not know appropriate keywords. In this case, a user should perform iterative searches as follows : i) perform an initial search with an arbitrary keyword, ii) acquire related keywords from the retrieved papers, and iii) perform another search again with the acquired keywords. This usage pattern implies that the level of service quality and user satisfaction of a portal site are strongly affected by the level of keyword management and searching mechanism. To overcome this kind of inefficiency, some leading research portal sites adopt the association rule mining-based keyword recommendation service that is similar to the product recommendation of online shopping malls. However, keyword recommendation only based on association analysis has limitation that it can show only a simple and direct relationship between two keywords. In other words, the association analysis itself is unable to present the complex relationships among many keywords in some adjacent research areas. To overcome this limitation, we propose the hybrid approach for establishing association network among keywords used in research papers. The keyword association network can be established by the following phases : i) a set of keywords specified in a certain paper are regarded as co-purchased items, ii) perform association analysis for the keywords and extract frequent patterns of keywords that satisfy predefined thresholds of confidence, support, and lift, and iii) schematize the frequent keyword patterns as a network to show the core keywords of each research area and connecting keywords among two or more research areas. To estimate the practical application of our approach, we performed a simple experiment with 600 keywords. The keywords are extracted from 131 research papers published in five prominent Korean journals in 2009. In the experiment, we used the SAS Enterprise Miner for association analysis and the R software for social network analysis. As the final outcome, we presented a network diagram and a cluster dendrogram for the keyword association network. We summarized the results in Section 4 of this paper. The main contribution of our proposed approach can be found in the following aspects : i) the keyword network can provide an initial roadmap of a research area to researchers who are novice in the domain, ii) a researcher can grasp the distribution of many keywords neighboring to a certain keyword, and iii) researchers can get some idea for converging different research areas by observing connecting keywords in the keyword association network. Further studies should include the following. First, the current version of our approach does not implement a standard meta-dictionary. For practical use, homonyms, synonyms, and multilingual problems should be resolved with a standard meta-dictionary. Additionally, more clear guidelines for clustering research areas and defining core and connecting keywords should be provided. Finally, intensive experiments not only on Korean research papers but also on international papers should be performed in further studies.
A Literature Review and Classification of Recommender Systems on Academic Journals
Deuk-Hee Park, Hyea-Kyeong Kim, Il-Young Choi, and Jae-Kyeong Kim
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 139 ~ 152
Recommender systems have become an important research field since the emergence of the first paper on collaborative filtering in the mid-1990s. In general, recommender systems are defined as the supporting systems which help users to find information, products, or services (such as books, movies, music, digital products, web sites, and TV programs) by aggregating and analyzing suggestions from other users, which mean reviews from various authorities, and user attributes. However, as academic researches on recommender systems have increased significantly over the last ten years, more researches are required to be applicable in the real world situation. Because research field on recommender systems is still wide and less mature than other research fields. Accordingly, the existing articles on recommender systems need to be reviewed toward the next generation of recommender systems. However, it would be not easy to confine the recommender system researches to specific disciplines, considering the nature of the recommender system researches. So, we reviewed all articles on recommender systems from 37 journals which were published from 2001 to 2010. The 37 journals are selected from top 125 journals of the MIS Journal Rankings. Also, the literature search was based on the descriptors "Recommender system", "Recommendation system", "Personalization system", "Collaborative filtering" and "Contents filtering". The full text of each article was reviewed to eliminate the article that was not actually related to recommender systems. Many of articles were excluded because the articles such as Conference papers, master's and doctoral dissertations, textbook, unpublished working papers, non-English publication papers and news were unfit for our research. We classified articles by year of publication, journals, recommendation fields, and data mining techniques. The recommendation fields and data mining techniques of 187 articles are reviewed and classified into eight recommendation fields (book, document, image, movie, music, shopping, TV program, and others) and eight data mining techniques (association rule, clustering, decision tree, k-nearest neighbor, link analysis, neural network, regression, and other heuristic methods). The results represented in this paper have several significant implications. First, based on previous publication rates, the interest in the recommender system related research will grow significantly in the future. Second, 49 articles are related to movie recommendation whereas image and TV program recommendation are identified in only 6 articles. This result has been caused by the easy use of MovieLens data set. So, it is necessary to prepare data set of other fields. Third, recently social network analysis has been used in the various applications. However studies on recommender systems using social network analysis are deficient. Henceforth, we expect that new recommendation approaches using social network analysis will be developed in the recommender systems. So, it will be an interesting and further research area to evaluate the recommendation system researches using social method analysis. This result provides trend of recommender system researches by examining the published literature, and provides practitioners and researchers with insight and future direction on recommender systems. We hope that this research helps anyone who is interested in recommender systems research to gain insight for future research.
Managing Duplicate Memberships of Websites : An Approach of Social Network Analysis
Eun-Young Kang, and Kee-Young Kwahk
Vol. 17, No. 1, Page: 153 ~ 169
Keywords : Duplicate Membership Management, Social Network Analysis, Sub Group
Today using Internet environment is considered absolutely essential for establishing corporate marketing strategy. Companies have promoted their products and services through various ways of on-line marketing activities such as providing gifts and points to customers in exchange for participating in events, which is based on customers' membership data. Since companies can use these membership data to enhance their marketing efforts through various data analysis, appropriate website membership management may play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of on-line marketing campaign. Despite the growing interests in proper membership management, however, there have been difficulties in identifying inappropriate members who can weaken on-line marketing effectiveness. In on-line environment, customers tend to not reveal themselves clearly compared to off-line market. Customers who have malicious intent are able to create duplicate IDs by using others' names illegally or faking login information during joining membership. Since the duplicate members are likely to intercept gifts and points that should be sent to appropriate customers who deserve them, this can result in ineffective marketing efforts. Considering that the number of website members and its related marketing costs are significantly increasing, it is necessary for companies to find efficient ways to screen and exclude unfavorable troublemakers who are duplicate members. With this motivation, this study proposes an approach for managing duplicate membership based on the social network analysis and verifies its effectiveness using membership data gathered from real websites. A social network is a social structure made up of actors called nodes, which are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency. Social networks represent the relationship between the nodes and show the direction and strength of the relationship. Various analytical techniques have been proposed based on the social relationships, such as centrality analysis, structural holes analysis, structural equivalents analysis, and so on. Component analysis, one of the social network analysis techniques, deals with the sub-networks that form meaningful information in the group connection. We propose a method for managing duplicate memberships using component analysis. The procedure is as follows. First step is to identify membership attributes that will be used for analyzing relationship patterns among memberships. Membership attributes include ID, telephone number, address, posting time, IP address, and so on. Second step is to compose social matrices based on the identified membership attributes and aggregate the values of each social matrix into a combined social matrix. The combined social matrix represents how strong pairs of nodes are connected together. When a pair of nodes is strongly connected, we expect that those nodes are likely to be duplicate memberships. The combined social matrix is transformed into a binary matrix with '0' or '1' of cell values using a relationship criterion that determines whether the membership is duplicate or not. Third step is to conduct a component analysis for the combined social matrix in order to identify component nodes and isolated nodes. Fourth, identify the number of real memberships and calculate the reliability of website membership based on the component analysis results. The proposed procedure was applied to three real websites operated by a pharmaceutical company. The empirical results showed that the proposed method was superior to the traditional database approach using simple address comparison. In conclusion, this study is expected to shed some light on how social network analysis can enhance a reliable on-line marketing performance by efficiently and effectively identifying duplicate memberships of websites.

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