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Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems,
Vol. 17, No. 2, June 2011
An Adaptive Genetic Algorithm with a Fuzzy Logic Controller for Solving Sequencing Problems with Precedence Constraints
Young-Su Yun
Vol. 17, No. 2, Page: 1 ~ 22
Abstract
In this paper, we propose an adaptive genetic algorithm (aGA) approach for effectively solving the sequencing problem with precedence constraints (SPPC). For effective representation of the SPPC in the aGA approach, a new representation procedure, called the topological sort-based representation procedure, is used. The proposed aGA approach has an adaptive scheme using a fuzzy logic controller and adaptively regulates the rate of the crossover operator during the genetic search process. Experimental results using various types of the SPPC show that the proposed aGA approach outperforms conventional competing approaches. Finally the proposed aGA approach can be a good alternative for locating optimal solutions or sequences for various types of the SPPC.
Potential Roles of Awareness Computing Technology for Energy Management
Oh-Byung Kwon
Vol. 17, No. 2, Page: 23 ~ 38
Abstract
Energy management aims to financial and ecological success by optimizing the energy consuming sources such as sensors, computers and appliances. Hence, acquiring energy-related data from the sources in an automated manner is the starting point of managing energy. Recently, awareness computing has been emerging in system and cybernetics area. Awareness is the most fundamental ability for any living things to survive, and also the first step to make systems intelligent with the help of artificial intelligence. Even though the potential reciprocal benefits between energy management and awareness computing, frameworks which show how awareness computing contributes to manage energy-related strategy have been very few. Hence, this paper aims to introduce the awareness computing issues to improve energy management. In particular, we focus on satisfaction awareness computing which potentially realize the balance of energy savings and user's utility.
A Dynamic Management Method for FOAF Using RSS and OLAP cube
Jong-Soo Sohn, and In-Jeong Chung
Vol. 17, No. 2, Page: 39 ~ 60
Keywords : Social Network, OLAP, FOAF
Abstract
Since the introduction of web 2.0 technology, social network service has been recognized as the foundation of an important future information technology. The advent of web 2.0 has led to the change of content creators. In the existing web, content creators are service providers, whereas they have changed into service users in the recent web. Users share experiences with other users improving contents quality, thereby it has increased the importance of social network. As a result, diverse forms of social network service have been emerged from relations and experiences of users. Social network is a network to construct and express social relations among people who share interests and activities. Today's social network service has not merely confined itself to showing user interactions, but it has also developed into a level in which content generation and evaluation are interacting with each other. As the volume of contents generated from social network service and the number of connections between users have drastically increased, the social network extraction method becomes more complicated. Consequently the following problems for the social network extraction arise. First problem lies in insufficiency of representational power of object in the social network. Second problem is incapability of expressional power in the diverse connections among users. Third problem is the difficulty of creating dynamic change in the social network due to change in user interests. And lastly, lack of method capable of integrating and processing data efficiently in the heterogeneous distributed computing environment. The first and last problems can be solved by using FOAF, a tool for describing ontology-based user profiles for construction of social network. However, solving second and third problems require a novel technology to reflect dynamic change of user interests and relations. In this paper, we propose a novel method to overcome the above problems of existing social network extraction method by applying FOAF (a tool for describing user profiles) and RSS (a literary web work publishing mechanism) to OLAP system in order to dynamically innovate and manage FOAF. We employed data interoperability which is an important characteristic of FOAF in this paper. Next we used RSS to reflect such changes as time flow and user interests. RSS, a tool for literary web work, provides standard vocabulary for distribution at web sites and contents in the form of RDF/XML. In this paper, we collect personal information and relations of users by utilizing FOAF. We also collect user contents by utilizing RSS. Finally, collected data is inserted into the database by star schema. The system we proposed in this paper generates OLAP cube using data in the database. 'Dynamic FOAF Management Algorithm' processes generated OLAP cube. Dynamic FOAF Management Algorithm consists of two functions: one is find_id_interest() and the other is find_relation (). Find_id_interest() is used to extract user interests during the input period, and find-relation() extracts users matching user interests. Finally, the proposed system reconstructs FOAF by reflecting extracted relationships and interests of users. For the justification of the suggested idea, we showed the implemented result together with its analysis. We used C# language and MS-SQL database, and input FOAF and RSS as data collected from livejournal.com. The implemented result shows that foaf : interest of users has reached an average of 19 percent increase for four weeks. In proportion to the increased foaf : interest change, the number of foaf : knows of users has grown an average of 9 percent for four weeks. As we use FOAF and RSS as basic data which have a wide support in web 2.0 and social network service, we have a definite advantage in utilizing user data distributed in the diverse web sites and services regardless of language and types of computer. By using suggested method in this paper, we can provide better services coping with the rapid change of user interests with the automatic application of FOAF.
GIS-based Market Analysis and Sales Management System : The Case of a Telecommunication Company
Nam-Sik Chang
Vol. 17, No. 2, Page: 61 ~ 75
Keywords : Geographic Information System, GIS-based Market Analysis and Sales Management System, Blocks, DB Enrichment
Abstract
A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages and presents (data with reference to geographic location data. In the later 1990s and earlier 2000s it was limitedly used in government sectors such as public utility management, urban planning, landscape architecture, and environmental contamination control. However, a growing number of open-source packages running on a range of operating systems enabled many private enterprises to explore the concept of viewing GIS-based sales and customer data over their own computer monitors. K telecommunication company has dominated the Korean telecommunication market by providing diverse services, such as high-speed internet, PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network), VOLP (Voice Over Internet Protocol), and IPTV(Internet Protocol Television). Even though the telecommunication market in Korea is huge, the competition between major services providers is growing more fierce than ever before. Service providers struggled to acquire as many new customers as possible, attempted to cross sell more products to their regular customers, and made more efforts on retaining the best customers by offering unprecedented benefits. Most service providers including K telecommunication company tried to adopt the concept of customer relationship management(CRM), and analyze customer's demographic and transactional data statistically in order to understand their customer's behavior. However, managing customer information has still remained at the basic level, and the quality and the quantity of customer data were not enough not only to understand the customers but also to design a strategy for marketing and sales. For example, the currently used 3,074 legal regional divisions, which are originally defined by the government, were too broad to calculate sub-regional customer's service subscription and cancellation ratio. Additional external data such as house size, house price, and household demographics are also needed to measure sales potential. Furthermore, making tables and reports were time consuming and they were insufficient to make a clear judgment about the market situation. In 2009, this company needed a dramatic shift in the way marketing and sales activities, and finally developed a dedicated GIS_based market analysis and sales management system. This system made huge improvement in the efficiency with which the company was able to manage and organize all customer and sales related information, and access to those information easily and visually. After the GIS information system was developed, and applied to marketing and sales activities at the corporate level, the company was reported to increase sales and market share substantially. This was due to the fact that by analyzing past market and sales initiatives, creating sales potential, and targeting key markets, the system could make suggestions and enable the company to focus its resources on the demographics most likely to respond to the promotion. This paper reviews subjective and unclear marketing and sales activities that K telecommunication company operated, and introduces the whole process of developing the GIS information system. The process consists of the following 5 modules : (1) Customer profile cleansing and standardization, (2) Internal/External DB enrichment, (3) Segmentation of 3,074 legal regions into 46,590 sub_regions called blocks, (4) GIS data mart design, and (5) GIS system construction. The objective of this case study is to emphasize the need of GIS system and how it works in the private enterprises by reviewing the development process of the K company's market analysis and sales management system. We hope that this paper suggest valuable guideline to companies that consider introducing or constructing a GIS information system.
The Behavior Analysis of Exhibition Visitors using Data Mining Technique at the KIDS & EDU EXPO for Children
Min-Kyu Jung, Hyea-Kyeong Kim, Il-Young Choi, Kyoung-Jun Lee, and Jae-Kyeong Kim
Vol. 17, No. 2, Page: 77 ~ 96
Keywords : Exhibition, Behavior Patterns, Observation Survey Method
Abstract
An exhibition is defined as market events for specific duration to present exhibitors' main products to business or private visitors, and it plays a key role as effective marketing channels. As the importance of exhibition is getting more and more, domestic exhibition industry has achieved such a great quantitative growth. But, In contrast to the quantitative growth of domestic exhibition industry, the qualitative growth of Exhibition has not achieved competent growth. In order to improve the quality of exhibition, we need to understand the preference or behavior characteristics of visitors and to increase the level of visitors' attention and satisfaction through the understanding of visitors. So, in this paper, we used the observation survey method which is a kind of field research to understand visitors and collect the real data for the analysis of behavior pattern. And this research proposed the following methodology framework consisting of three steps. First step is to select a suitable exhibition to apply for our method. Second step is to implement the observation survey method. And we collect the real data for further analysis. In this paper, we conducted the observation survey method to obtain the real data of the KIDS & EDU EXPO for Children in SETEC. Our methodology was conducted on 160 visitors and 78 booths from November 4th to 6th in 2010. And, the last step is to analyze the record data through observation. In this step, we analyze the feature of exhibition using Demographic Characteristics collected by observation survey method at first. And then we analyze the individual booth features by the records of visited booth. Through the analysis of individual booth features, we can figure out what kind of events attract the attention of visitors and what kind of marketing activities affect the behavior pattern of visitors. But, since previous research considered only individual features influenced by exhibition, the research about the correlation among features is not performed much. So, in this research, additional analysis is carried out to supplement the existing research with data mining techniques. And we analyze the relation among booths using data mining techniques to know behavior patterns of visitors. Among data mining techniques, we make use of two data mining techniques, such as clustering analysis and ARM(Association Rule Mining) analysis. In clustering analysis, we use K-means algorithm to figure out the correlation among booths. Through data mining techniques, we figure out that there are two important features to affect visitors' behavior patterns in exhibition. One is the geographical features of booths. The other is the exhibit contents of booths. Those features are considered when the organizer of exhibition plans next exhibition. Therefore, the results of our analysis are expected to provide guideline to understanding visitors and some valuable insights for the exhibition from the earlier phases of exhibition planning. Also, this research would be a good way to increase the quality of visitor satisfaction. Visitors' movement paths, booth location, and distances between each booth are considered to plan next exhibition in advance. This research was conducted at the KIDS & EDU EXPO for Children in SETEC(Seoul Trade Exhibition & Convention), but it has some constraints to be applied directly to other exhibitions. Also, the results were derived from a limited number of data samples. In order to obtain more accurate and reliable results, it is necessary to conduct more experiments based on larger data samples and exhibitions on a variety of genres.
A digital Audio Watermarking Algorithm using 2D Barcode
Kyoung-Yul Bae
Vol. 17, No. 2, Page: 97 ~ 107
Keywords : Audio Watermarking, 2D barcode, QR code
Abstract
Nowadays there are a lot of issues about copyright infringement in the Internet world because the digital content on the network can be copied and delivered easily. Indeed the copied version has same quality with the original one. So, copyright owners and content provider want a powerful solution to protect their content. The popular one of the solutions was DRM (digital rights management) that is based on encryption technology and rights control. However, DRM-free service was launched after Steve Jobs who is CEO of Apple proposed a new music service paradigm without DRM, and the DRM is disappeared at the online music market. Even though the online music service decided to not equip the DRM solution, copyright owners and content providers are still searching a solution to protect their content. A solution to replace the DRM technology is digital audio watermarking technology which can embed copyright information into the music. In this paper, the author proposed a new audio watermarking algorithm with two approaches. First, the watermark information is generated by two dimensional barcode which has error correction code. So, the information can be recovered by itself if the errors fall into the range of the error tolerance. The other one is to use chirp sequence of CDMA (code division multiple access). These make the algorithm robust to the several malicious attacks. There are many 2D barcodes. Especially, QR code which is one of the matrix barcodes can express the information and the expression is freer than that of the other matrix barcodes. QR code has the square patterns with double at the three corners and these indicate the boundary of the symbol. This feature of the QR code is proper to express the watermark information. That is, because the QR code is 2D barcodes, nonlinear code and matrix code, it can be modulated to the spread spectrum and can be used for the watermarking algorithm. The proposed algorithm assigns the different spread spectrum sequences to the individual users respectively. In the case that the assigned code sequences are orthogonal, we can identify the watermark information of the individual user from an audio content. The algorithm used the Walsh code as an orthogonal code. The watermark information is rearranged to the 1D sequence from 2D barcode and modulated by the Walsh code. The modulated watermark information is embedded into the DCT (discrete cosine transform) domain of the original audio content. For the performance evaluation, I used 3 audio samples, "Amazing Grace", "Oh! Carol" and "Take me home country roads", The attacks for the robustness test were MP3 compression, echo attack, and sub woofer boost. The MP3 compression was performed by a tool of Cool Edit Pro 2.0. The specification of MP3 was CBR(Constant Bit Rate) 128kbps, 44,100Hz, and stereo. The echo attack had the echo with initial volume 70%, decay 75%, and delay 100msec. The sub woofer boost attack was a modification attack of low frequency part in the Fourier coefficients. The test results showed the proposed algorithm is robust to the attacks. In the MP3 attack, the strength of the watermark information is not affected, and then the watermark can be detected from all of the sample audios. In the sub woofer boost attack, the watermark was detected when the strength is 0.3. Also, in the case of echo attack, the watermark can be identified if the strength is greater and equal than 0.5.
The Design of Smart-phone Application Design for Intelligent Personalized Service in Exhibition Space
Young-Hee Cho, and Ae-Kwon Choi
Vol. 17, No. 2, Page: 109 ~ 117
Keywords : Intelligence Service, Personalization Service, Exhibit/Convention
Abstract
The exhibition industry, as technology-intensive, eco-friendly industry, contributes to regional and national development and enhancement of its image as well, if it joins cultural and tourist industry. Therefore, We need to revitalize the exhibition industry, as actively holding an exhibition event. However, to attract a number of exhibition audience, the work of enhancing audience satisfaction and awareness of value for participation should be prioritized after improving quality of service within exhibition hall. As one way to enhance the quality of service, it is thought that the way providing personalized service geared toward each audience is needed. that is, if audience avoids the complexity in exhibition space and it affords them service to enable effective time and space management, it will improve the satisfaction. All such personalized service affordable lets the audience's preference on the basis of each audience profile registered in advance online grasp. and Based on this information, it is provided with exhibition-related information suited their purpose that is the booth for the interesting audience, the shortest path to go to the booth and event via audience's smart phone. and it collects audience's reaction information, such as visiting the booth, participating the event through offered the information in this way and location information for the flow of movement, the present position so that it makes revision of existing each audience profile. After correcting the information, it extracts the individual's preference. hereunder, it provides recommend booth and event information. in other words, it provides optimal information for individual by amendment based on reaction information about recommending information built on basic profile. It provides personalized service dynamic and interactive with audience. This paper will be able to provide the most suitable information for each audience through circular and interactive structure and designed smart-phone application supportable for updating dynamic and interactive personalized service that is able to afford surrounding information in real time, as locating movement position through sensing. The proposed application collects user‘s context information and carrys information gathering function collecting the reaction about searched or provided information via sensing. and it also carrys information gathering function providing needed data for user in exhibition hall. In other words, it offers information about recommend booth of position foundation for user, location-based services of recommend booth and involves service providing detailed information for inside exhibition by using service of augmented reality, the map of whole exhibition as well. and it is also provided with SNS service that is able to keep information exchange besides intimacy. To provide this service, application is consisted of several module. first of all, it includes UNS identity module for sensing, and contain sensor information gathering module handling and collecting the perceived information through this module. Sensor information gathered like this transmits the information gathering server. and there is exhibition information interfacing with user and this module transmits to interesting information collection module through user's reaction besides interface. Interesting information collection module transmits collected information and If valid information out of the information gathering server that brings together sensing information and interesting information is sent to recommend server, the recommend server makes recommend information through inference with gathered valid information. If this server transmit by exhibition information process, exhibition information process module is provided with user by interface. Through this system it raises the dynamic, intelligent personalized service for user.
Mobile Contents Transformation System Research for Personalization Service
Jong-Hwan Bae, Young-Hee Cho, Jung-Jae Lee, and Nam-Jin Kim
Vol. 17, No. 2, Page: 119 ~ 128
Keywords : Mobile Profile, Contents Transformation, Personalization Service
Abstract
The Sensor technology and portable device capability able to collect recent user information and the information about the surrounding environment haven been highly developed. A user can be made use of various contents and the option is also extending with this technology development. In particular, the initial portable device had simply a call function, but now that has evolved into 'the 4th screen' which including movie, television, PC ability. also, in the past, a portable device to provided only the services of a SMS, in recent years, it provided to interactive video service, and it include technology which providing various contents. Also, it is rising as media which leading the consumption of contents, because it can be used anytime, anywhere. However, the contents available for the nature of user's handheld devices are limited. because it is very difficult for making the contents separately according to various device specification. To find a solution to this problem, the study on one contents from several device has been progressing. The contents conversion technology making use of the profile of device out of this study comes to the force and profile study has been progressing for this. Furthermore, Demand for a user is also increased and the study on the technology collecting, analyzing demands has been making active progress. And what is more, Grasping user's demands by making use of this technology and the study on the technology analyzing, providing contents has been making active progress as well. First of all, there is a method making good use of ZigBee, Bluetooth technology about the sensor for gathering user's information. ZigBee uses low-power digital radio for wireless headphone, wireless communication network, and being utilized for smart energy, automatic home system, wireless communication application and wireless sensor application. Bluetooth, as industry standards of PAN(Personal Area Networks), is being made of use of low power wireless device for the technology supporting data transmission such as drawing file, video file among Bluetooth device. With analyzing the collected information making use of this technology, it utilizes personalized service based on network knowledge developed by ETRI to service contents tailor-made for a user. Now that personalized service builds up network knowledge about user's various environments, the technology provides context friendly service constructed dynamically on the basis of this. The contents to service dynamically like this offer the contents that it converses with utilizing device profile to working well. Therefore, this paper suggests the system as follow. It collects the information, for example of user's sensitivity, context and location by using sensor technology, and generates the profile as a means of collected information as sensor. It collects the user's propensity to the information by user's input and event and generates profile in the same way besides the gathered information by sensor. Device transmits a generated profile and the profile about a device specification to proxy server. And proxy server transmits a profile to each profile management server. It analyzes profile in proxy server so that it selects the contents user demand and requests in contents server. Contents server receives a profile of user portable device from device profile server and converses the contents by using this. Original source code of contents convert into XML code using the device profile and XML code convert into source code available in user portable device. Thus, contents conversion process is terminated and user friendly system is completed as the user transmits optimal contents for user portable device.
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