Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems,
Vol. 18, No. 1, March 2012
A Mobile Landmarks Guide : Outdoor Augmented Reality based on LOD and Contextual Device
Bi-Cheng Zhao, Ahmad Nurzid Rosli, Chol-Hee Jang, Kee-Sung Lee, and Geun-Sik Jo
Vol. 18, No. 1, Page: 1 ~ 21
In recent years, mobile phone has experienced an extremely fast evolution. It is equipped with high-quality color displays, high resolution cameras, and real-time accelerated 3D graphics. In addition, some other features are includes GPS sensor and Digital Compass, etc. This evolution advent significantly helps the application developers to use the power of smart-phones, to create a rich environment that offers a wide range of services and exciting possibilities. To date mobile AR in outdoor research there are many popular location-based AR services, such Layar and Wikitude. These systems have big limitation the AR contents hardly overlaid on the real target. Another research is context-based AR services using image recognition and tracking. The AR contents are precisely overlaid on the real target. But the real-time performance is restricted by the retrieval time and hardly implement in large scale area. In our work, we exploit to combine advantages of location-based AR with context-based AR. The system can easily find out surrounding landmarks first and then do the recognition and tracking with them. The proposed system mainly consists of two major parts-landmark browsing module and annotation module. In landmark browsing module, user can view an augmented virtual information (information media), such as text, picture and video on their smart-phone viewfinder, when they pointing out their smart-phone to a certain building or landmark. For this, landmark recognition technique is applied in this work. SURF point-based features are used in the matching process due to their robustness. To ensure the image retrieval and matching processes is fast enough for real time tracking, we exploit the contextual device (GPS and digital compass) information. This is necessary to select the nearest and pointed orientation landmarks from the database. The queried image is only matched with this selected data. Therefore, the speed for matching will be significantly increased. Secondly is the annotation module. Instead of viewing only the augmented information media, user can create virtual annotation based on linked data. Having to know a full knowledge about the landmark, are not necessary required. They can simply look for the appropriate topic by searching it with a keyword in linked data. With this, it helps the system to find out target URI in order to generate correct AR contents. On the other hand, in order to recognize target landmarks, images of selected building or landmark are captured from different angle and distance. This procedure looks like a similar processing of building a connection between the real building and the virtual information existed in the Linked Open Data. In our experiments, search range in the database is reduced by clustering images into groups according to their coordinates. A Grid-base clustering method and user location information are used to restrict the retrieval range. Comparing the existed research using cluster and GPS information the retrieval time is around 70~80ms. Experiment results show our approach the retrieval time reduces to around 18~20ms in average. Therefore the totally processing time is reduced from 490~540ms to 438~480ms. The performance improvement will be more obvious when the database growing. It demonstrates the proposed system is efficient and robust in many cases.
An Investigation on Expanding Co-occurrence Criteria in Association Rule Mining
Mi-Sung Kim, Nam-Gyu Kim, and Jae-Hyeon Ahn
Vol. 18, No. 1, Page: 23 ~ 38
Keywords : Data Mining, Online Market Analysis, Market Basket Analysis
There is a large difference between purchasing patterns in an online shopping mall and in an offline market. This difference may be caused mainly by the difference in accessibility of online and offline markets. It means that an interval between the initial purchasing decision and its realization appears to be relatively short in an online shopping mall, because a customer can make an order immediately. Because of the short interval between a purchasing decision and its realization, an online shopping mall transaction usually contains fewer items than that of an offline market. In an offline market, customers usually keep some items in mind and buy them all at once a few days after deciding to buy them, instead of buying each item individually and immediately. On the contrary, more than 70% of online shopping mall transactions contain only one item. This statistic implies that traditional data mining techniques cannot be directly applied to online market analysis, because hardly any association rules can survive with an acceptable level of Support because of too many Null Transactions. Most market basket analyses on online shopping mall transactions, therefore, have been performed by expanding the co-occurrence criteria of traditional association rule mining. While the traditional co-occurrence criteria defines items purchased in one transaction as concurrently purchased items, the expanded co-occurrence criteria regards items purchased by a customer during some predefined period (e.g., a day) as concurrently purchased items. In studies using expanded co-occurrence criteria, however, the criteria has been defined arbitrarily by researchers without any theoretical grounds or agreement. The lack of clear grounds of adopting a certain co-occurrence criteria degrades the reliability of the analytical results. Moreover, it is hard to derive new meaningful findings by combining the outcomes of previous individual studies. In this paper, we attempt to compare expanded co-occurrence criteria and propose a guideline for selecting an appropriate one. First of all, we compare the accuracy of association rules discovered according to various co-occurrence criteria. By doing this experiment we expect that we can provide a guideline for selecting appropriate co-occurrence criteria that corresponds to the purpose of the analysis. Additionally, we will perform similar experiments with several groups of customers that are segmented by each customer's average duration between orders. By this experiment, we attempt to discover the relationship between the optimal co-occurrence criteria and the customer's average duration between orders. Finally, by a series of experiments, we expect that we can provide basic guidelines for developing customized recommendation systems. Our experiments use a real dataset acquired from one of the largest internet shopping malls in Korea. We use 66,278 transactions of 3,847 customers conducted during the last two years. Overall results show that the accuracy of association rules of frequent shoppers (whose average duration between orders is relatively short) is higher than that of causal shoppers. In addition we discover that with frequent shoppers, the accuracy of association rules appears very high when the co-occurrence criteria of the training set corresponds to the validation set (i.e., target set). It implies that the co-occurrence criteria of frequent shoppers should be set according to the application purpose period. For example, an analyzer should use a day as a co-occurrence criterion if he/she wants to offer a coupon valid only for a day to potential customers who will use the coupon. On the contrary, an analyzer should use a month as a co-occurrence criterion if he/she wants to publish a coupon book that can be used for a month. In the case of causal shoppers, the accuracy of association rules appears to not be affected by the period of the application purposes. The accuracy of the causal shoppers' association rules becomes higher when the longer co-occurrence criterion has been adopted. It implies that an analyzer has to set the co-occurrence criterion for as long as possible, regardless of the application purpose period.
The Intelligent Determination Model of Audience Emotion for Implementing Personalized Exhibition
Min-Kyu Jung, and Jae-Kyeong Kim
Vol. 18, No. 1, Page: 39 ~ 57
Keywords : Emotion Determination Model, Interactive Exhibition, Valence-Arousal Model, Artificial Neural Network
Recently, due to the introduction of high-tech equipment in interactive exhibits, many people's attention has been concentrated on Interactive exhibits that can double the exhibition effect through the interaction with the audience. In addition, it is also possible to measure a variety of audience reaction in the interactive exhibition. Among various audience reactions, this research uses the change of the facial features that can be collected in an interactive exhibition space. This research develops an artificial neural network-based prediction model to predict the response of the audience by measuring the change of the facial features when the audience is given stimulation from the non-excited state. To present the emotion state of the audience, this research uses a Valence-Arousal model. So, this research suggests an overall framework composed of the following six steps. The first step is a step of collecting data for modeling. The data was collected from people participated in the 2012 Seoul DMC Culture Open, and the collected data was used for the experiments. The second step extracts 64 facial features from the collected data and compensates the facial feature values. The third step generates independent and dependent variables of an artificial neural network model. The fourth step extracts the independent variable that affects the dependent variable using the statistical technique. The fifth step builds an artificial neural network model and performs a learning process using train set and test set. Finally the last sixth step is to validate the prediction performance of artificial neural network model using the validation data set. The proposed model is compared with statistical predictive model to see whether it had better performance or not. As a result, although the data set in this experiment had much noise, the proposed model showed better results when the model was compared with multiple regression analysis model. If the prediction model of audience reaction was used in the real exhibition, it will be able to provide countermeasures and services appropriate to the audience's reaction viewing the exhibits. Specifically, if the arousal of audience about Exhibits is low, Action to increase arousal of the audience will be taken. For instance, we recommend the audience another preferred contents or using a light or sound to focus on these exhibits. In other words, when planning future exhibitions, planning the exhibition to satisfy various audience preferences would be possible. And it is expected to foster a personalized environment to concentrate on the exhibits. But, the proposed model in this research still shows the low prediction accuracy. The cause is in some parts as follows : First, the data covers diverse visitors of real exhibitions, so it was difficult to control the optimized experimental environment. So, the collected data has much noise, and it would results a lower accuracy. In further research, the data collection will be conducted in a more optimized experimental environment. The further research to increase the accuracy of the predictions of the model will be conducted. Second, using changes of facial expression only is thought to be not enough to extract audience emotions. If facial expression is combined with other responses, such as the sound, audience behavior, it would result a better result.
Designing Mobile Framework for Intelligent Personalized Marketing Service in Interactive Exhibition Space
Jong-Hwan Bae, Su-Hwan Sho, and Lee-Kwon Choi
Vol. 18, No. 1, Page: 59 ~ 69
Keywords : Intelligence Service, Personalization Service, Interact Smart Phone Service
As exhibition industry, which is a part of 17 new growth engines of the government, is related to other industries such as tourism, transportation and financial industries. So it has a significant ripple effect on other industries. Exhibition is a knowledge-intensive, eco-friendly and high value-added Industry. Over 13,000 exhibitions are held every year around the world which contributes to getting foreign currency. Exhibition industry is closely related with culture and tourism and could be utilized as local and national development strategies and improve national brand image as well. Many countries try various efforts to invigorate exhibition industry by arranging related laws and support system. In Korea, more than 200 exhibitions are being held every year, but only 2~3 exhibitions are hosted with over 400 exhibitors and except these exhibitions most exhibitions have few foreign exhibitors. The main reason of weakness of domestic trade show is that there are no agencies managing exhibitionrelated statistics and there is no specific and reliable evaluation. This might cause impossibility of providing buyer or seller with reliable data, poor growth of exhibitions in terms of quality and thus service quality of trade shows cannot be improved. Hosting a lot of visitors (Public/Buyer/Exhibitor) is very crucial to the development of domestic exhibition industry. In order to attract many visitors, service quality of exhibition and visitor's satisfaction should be enhanced. For this purpose, a variety of real-time customized services through digital media and the services for creating new customers and retaining existing customers should be provided. In addition, by providing visitors with personalized information services they could manage their time and space efficiently avoiding the complexity of exhibition space. Exhibition industry can have competitiveness and industrial foundation through building up exhibition-related statistics, creating new information and enhancing research ability. Therefore, this paper deals with customized service with visitor's smart-phone at the exhibition space and designing mobile framework which enables exhibition devices to interact with other devices. Mobile server framework is composed of three different systems; multi-server interaction, server, client, display device. By making knowledge pool of exhibition environment, the accumulated data for each visitor can be provided as personalized service. In addition, based on the reaction of visitors each of all information is utilized as customized information and so the cyclic chain structure is designed. Multiple interaction server is designed to have functions of event handling, interaction process between exhibition device and visitor's smart-phone and data management. Client is an application processed by visitor's smart-phone and could be driven on a variety of platforms. Client functions as interface representing customized service for individual visitors and event input and output for simultaneous participation. Exhibition device consists of display system to show visitors contents and information, interaction input-output system to receive event from visitors and input toward action and finally the control system to connect above two systems. The proposed mobile framework in this paper provides individual visitors with customized and active services using their information profile and advanced Knowledge. In addition, user participation service is suggested as well by using interaction connection system between server, client, and exhibition devices. Suggested mobile framework is a technology which could be applied to culture industry such as performance, show and exhibition. Thus, this builds up the foundation to improve visitor's participation in exhibition and bring about development of exhibition industry by raising visitor's interest.
Control Networks for Information Systems Development : Organizational and Agency Theory Perspectives
Sa-Neung Hong
Vol. 18, No. 1, Page: 71 ~ 90
Keywords : Control Type, Control Mechanism, Control Network, Controlee, Controlee, Agency Problem, Agency Cost, Control Loss, Employment Contract
Although it has been studied for a long time in various disciplines, most of control theories remain being developed by analyzing relatively simple tasks. Even recent research on control of information systems development explains only a small part of control phenomena observed in the real world projects. This research focuses on identifying and analyzing the concepts and structures in order to make them useful for understanding and explaining control of information systems development comprehensively This investigation utilizes the complementary relationship between views on control from organizational and economic perspectives. A conceptual framework developed by integrating previous research on control allows us to analyze the development of information systems for control purposes. The results of discussion about control mechanisms and network can be used as guidelines for designing control systems in real projects. Analysis of control networks shows that control of development projects requires quite complex networks intertwining a variety of controllers and controlees. The results of this research are expected to contribute to correcting the unbalanced status of IS research which has emphasized too heavily on planning and implementation, and deepening and widening our understanding about controlling development projects. Practitioners can use the results as guidelines for designing control mechanisms and networks, and get alerted by them about the agency risks inherent in outsourced developments.
Personal Information Detection by Using Naive Bayes Methodology
Nam-Won Kim, and Jin-Soo Park
Vol. 18, No. 1, Page: 91 ~ 107
Keywords : Naive Bayes, Document Classification, Personal Information, Security, Security, Social Network Service
As the Internet becomes more popular, many people use it to communicate. With the increasing number of personal homepages, blogs, and social network services, people often expose their personal information online. Although the necessity of those services cannot be denied, we should be concerned about the negative aspects such as personal information leakage. Because it is impossible to review all of the past records posted by all of the people, an automatic personal information detection method is strongly required. This study proposes a method to detect or classify online documents that contain personal information by analyzing features that are common to personal information related documents and learning that information based on the Naive Bayes algorithm. To select the document classification algorithm, the Naive Bayes classification algorithm was compared with the Vector Space classification algorithm. The result showed that NaiveBayes reveals more excellent precision, recall, F-measure, and accuracy than Vector Space does. However, the measurement level of the Naive Bayes classification algorithm is still insufficient to apply to the real world. Lewis, a learning algorithm researcher, states that it is important to improve the quality of category features while applying learning algorithms to some specific domain. He proposes a way to incrementally add features that are dependent on related documents and in a step-wise manner. In another experiment, the algorithm learns the additional dependent features thereby reducing the noise of the features. As a result, the latter experiment shows better performance in terms of measurement than the former experiment does.
The Statistical Approach-based Intelligent Education Support System
Jun-Hee Chung
Vol. 18, No. 1, Page: 109 ~ 123
Keywords : Intelligent System, Education, Pattern Recognition, Lecture Module, Lecture Module, Difficulty, Automation
Many kinds of the education systems are provided to students. Many kinds of the contents like School subjects, license, job training education and so on are provided through many kinds of the media like text, image, video and so on. Students will apply the knowledge they learnt and will use it when they learn other things. In the existing education system, there have been many situations that the education system isn't really helpful to the students because too hard contents are transferred to them or because too easy contents are transferred to them and they learn the contents they already know again. To solve this phenomenon, a method that transfers the most proper lecture contents to the students is suggested in the thesis. Because the difficulty is relative, the contents A can be easier than the contents B to a group of the students and the contents B can be easier than the contents A to another group of the students. Therefore, it is not easy to measure the difficulty of the lecture contents. A method considering this phenomenon to transfer the proper lecture contents is suggested in the thesis. The whole lecture contents are divided into many lecture modules. The students solve the pattern recognition questions, a kind of the prior test questions, before studying the lecture contents and the system selects and provides the most proper lecture module among many lecture modules to the students according to the score about the questions. When the system selects the lecture module and transfer it to the student, the students' answer and the difficulty of the lecture modules are considered. In the existing education system, 1 kind of the content is transferred to various students. If the same lecture contents is transferred to various students, the contents will not be transferred efficiently. The system selects the proper contents using the students' pattern recognition answers. The pattern recognition question is a kind of the prior test question that is developed on the basis of the lecture module and used to recognize whether the student knows the contents of the lecture module. Because the difficulty of the lecture module reflects the all scores of the students' answers, whenever a student submits the answer, the difficulty is changed. The suggested system measures the relative knowledge of the students using the answers and designates the difficulty. The improvement of the suggested method is only applied when the order of the lecture contents has nothing to do with the progress of the lecture. If the contents of the unit 1 should be studied before studying the contents of the unit 2, the suggested method is not applied. The suggested method is introduced on the basis of the subject "English grammar", subjects that the order is not important, in the thesis. If the suggested method is applied properly to the education environment, the students who don't know enough basic knowledge will learn the basic contents well and prepare the basis to learn the harder lecture contents. The students who already know the lecture contents will not study those again and save more time to learn more various lecture contents. Many improvement effects like these and so on will be provided to the education environment. If the suggested method that is introduced on the basis of the subject "English grammar" is applied to the various education systems like primary education, secondary education, job education and so on, more improvement effects will be provided. The direction to realize these things is suggested in the thesis. The suggested method is realized with the MySQL database and Java, JSP program. It will be very good if the suggested method is researched developmentally and become helpful to the development of the Korea education.
An Integrated Model based on Genetic Algorithms for Implementing Cost-Effective Intelligent Intrusion Detection Systems
Hyeon-Uk Lee, Ji-Hun Kim, and Hyun-Chul Ahn
Vol. 18, No. 1, Page: 125 ~ 141
Keywords : Intrusion Detection System, Asymmetric Cost Of Errors, Genetic Algorithm
These days, the malicious attacks and hacks on the networked systems are dramatically increasing, and the patterns of them are changing rapidly. Consequently, it becomes more important to appropriately handle these malicious attacks and hacks, and there exist sufficient interests and demand in effective network security systems just like intrusion detection systems. Intrusion detection systems are the network security systems for detecting, identifying and responding to unauthorized or abnormal activities appropriately. Conventional intrusion detection systems have generally been designed using the experts' implicit knowledge on the network intrusions or the hackers' abnormal behaviors. However, they cannot handle new or unknown patterns of the network attacks, although they perform very well under the normal situation. As a result, recent studies on intrusion detection systems use artificial intelligence techniques, which can proactively respond to the unknown threats. For a long time, researchers have adopted and tested various kinds of artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks, decision trees, and support vector machines to detect intrusions on the network. However, most of them have just applied these techniques singularly, even though combining the techniques may lead to better detection. With this reason, we propose a new integrated model for intrusion detection. Our model is designed to combine prediction results of four different binary classification models-logistic regression (LOGIT), decision trees (DT), artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machines (SVM), which may be complementary to each other. As a tool for finding optimal combining weights, genetic algorithms (GA) are used. Our proposed model is designed to be built in two steps. At the first step, the optimal integration model whose prediction error (i.e. erroneous classification rate) is the least is generated. After that, in the second step, it explores the optimal classification threshold for determining intrusions, which minimizes the total misclassification cost. To calculate the total misclassification cost of intrusion detection system, we need to understand its asymmetric error cost scheme. Generally, there are two common forms of errors in intrusion detection. The first error type is the False-Positive Error (FPE). In the case of FPE, the wrong judgment on it may result in the unnecessary fixation. The second error type is the False-Negative Error (FNE) that mainly misjudges the malware of the program as normal. Compared to FPE, FNE is more fatal. Thus, total misclassification cost is more affected by FNE rather than FPE. To validate the practical applicability of our model, we applied it to the real-world dataset for network intrusion detection. The experimental dataset was collected from the IDS sensor of an official institution in Korea from January to June 2010. We collected 15,000 log data in total, and selected 10,000 samples from them by using random sampling method. Also, we compared the results from our model with the results from single techniques to confirm the superiority of the proposed model. LOGIT and DT was experimented using PASW Statistics v18.0, and ANN was experimented using Neuroshell R4.0. For SVM, LIBSVM v2.90-a freeware for training SVM classifier-was used. Empirical results showed that our proposed model based on GA outperformed all the other comparative models in detecting network intrusions from the accuracy perspective. They also showed that the proposed model outperformed all the other comparative models in the total misclassification cost perspective. Consequently, it is expected that our study may contribute to build cost-effective intelligent intrusion detection systems.

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