Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems,
Vol. 19, No. 2, June 2013
Incorporating Social Relationship discovered from User’s Behavior into Collaborative Filtering
Setha Thay, Inay Ha, and Geun-Sik Jo
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 1 ~ 20
Nowadays, social network is a huge communication platform for providing people to connect with one another and to bring users together to share common interests, experiences, and their daily activities. Users spend hours per day in maintaining personal information and interacting with other people via posting, commenting, messaging, games, social events, and applications. Due to the growth of user’s distributed information in social network, there is a great potential to utilize the social data to enhance the quality of recommender system. There are some researches focusing on social network analysis that investigate how social network can be used in recommendation domain. Among these researches, we are interested in taking advantages of the interaction between a user and others in social network that can be determined and known as social relationship. Furthermore, mostly user’s decisions before purchasing some products depend on suggestion of people who have either the same preferences or closer relationship. For this reason, we believe that user’s relationship in social network can provide an effective way to increase the quality in prediction user’s interests of recommender system. Therefore, social relationship between users encountered from social network is a common factor to improve the way of predicting user’s preferences in the conventional approach.
Recommender system is dramatically increasing in popularity and currently being used by many e-commerce sites such as,,, etc. Collaborative filtering (CF) method is one of the essential and powerful techniques in recommender system for suggesting the appropriate items to user by learning user’s preferences. CF method focuses on user data and generates automatic prediction about user’s interests by gathering information from users who share similar background and preferences. Specifically, the intension of CF method is to find users who have similar preferences and to suggest target user items that were mostly preferred by those nearest neighbor users. There are two basic units that need to be considered by CF method, the user and the item. Each user needs to provide his rating value on items i.e. movies, products, books, etc to indicate their interests on those items. In addition, CF uses the user-rating matrix to find a group of users who have similar rating with target user. Then, it predicts unknown rating value for items that target user has not rated. Currently, CF has been successfully implemented in both information filtering and e-commerce applications. However, it remains some important challenges such as cold start, data sparsity, and scalability reflected on quality and accuracy of prediction.
In order to overcome these challenges, many researchers have proposed various kinds of CF method such as hybrid CF, trust-based CF, social network-based CF, etc. In the purpose of improving the recommendation performance and prediction accuracy of standard CF, in this paper we propose a method which integrates traditional CF technique with social relationship between users discovered from user’s behavior in social network i.e. Facebook. We identify user’s relationship from behavior of user such as posts and comments interacted with friends in Facebook. We believe that social relationship implicitly inferred from user’s behavior can be likely applied to compensate the limitation of conventional approach. Therefore, we extract posts and comments of each user by using Facebook Graph API and calculate feature score among each term to obtain feature vector for computing similarity of user. Then, we combine the result with similarity value computed using traditional CF technique. Finally, our system provides a list of recommended items according to neighbor users who have the biggest total similarity value to the target user.
In order to verify and evaluate our proposed method we have performed an experiment on data collected from our Movies Rating System. Prediction accuracy evaluation is conducted to demonstrate how much our algorithm gives the correctness of recommendation to user in terms of MAE. Then, the evaluation of performance is made to show the effectiveness of our method in terms of precision, recall, and F1-measure. Evaluation on coverage is also included in our experiment to see the ability of generating recommendation. The experimental results show that our proposed method outperform and more accurate in suggesting items to users with better performance. The effectiveness of user’s behavior in social network particularly shows the significant improvement by up to 6% on recommendation accuracy. Moreover, experiment of recommendation performance shows that incorporating social relationship observed from user’s behavior into CF is beneficial and useful to generate recommendation with 7% improvement of performance compared with benchmark methods. Finally, we confirm that interaction between users in social network is able to enhance the accuracy and give better recommendation in conventional approach.
Supply Contract Intelligence : The Impact of Stockout and Overstock Experiences Using System Dynamics Simulation Model
Yonghwi Noh, Donghyun Choi, Jin Sung Rha, and Yongkee Suh
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 21 ~ 38
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of behavioral factors (buyer’s tendency to reflect stockout and overstock experiences in ordering decision) on the supply chain performance. This study employs system dynamics to examine the influence of these behavioral factors derived from the interview with several representatives of retailers in South Korea. The results show that different contract can bring different performance (total profit, seller’s profit, buyer’s profit, order quantity, sales quantity, overstock, and stockout). The results also suggest that these behavioral factors play a significantly influential role in the performance of supply contract. These results imply that supply contract should be established based on the analysis of behavioral factors of supply chain participants.
Product Recommender Systems using Multi-Model Ensemble Techniques
Yeonjeong Lee, and Kyoung-jae Kim
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 39 ~ 54
Keywords : Product Recommender System, Multi-Model Ensemble Technique, Association Rules, Artificial Neural Networks, Artificial Neural Networks
Recent explosive increase of electronic commerce provides many advantageous purchase opportunities to customers. In this situation, customers who do not have enough knowledge about their purchases, may accept product recommendations. Product recommender systems automatically reflect user’s preference and provide recommendation list to the users. Thus, product recommender system in online shopping store has been known as one of the most popular tools for one-to-one marketing. However, recommender systems which do not properly reflect user’s preference cause user’s disappointment and waste of time.
In this study, we propose a novel recommender system which uses data mining and multi-model ensemble techniques to enhance the recommendation performance through reflecting the precise user’s preference. The research data is collected from the real-world online shopping store, which deals products from famous art galleries and museums in Korea. The data initially contain 5759 transaction data, but finally remain 3167 transaction data after deletion of null data. In this study, we transform the categorical variables into dummy variables and exclude outlier data.
The proposed model consists of two steps. The first step predicts customers who have high likelihood to purchase products in the online shopping store. In this step, we first use logistic regression, decision trees, and artificial neural networks to predict customers who have high likelihood to purchase products in each product group. We perform above data mining techniques using SAS E-Miner software. In this study, we partition datasets into two sets as modeling and validation sets for the logistic regression and decision trees. We also partition datasets into three sets as training, test, and validation sets for the artificial neural network model. The validation dataset is equal for the all experiments. Then we composite the results of each predictor using the multi-model ensemble techniques such as bagging and bumping. Bagging is the abbreviation of “Bootstrap Aggregation” and it composite outputs from several machine learning techniques for raising the performance and stability of prediction or classification. This technique is special form of the averaging method. Bumping is the abbreviation of “Bootstrap Umbrella of Model Parameter,” and it only considers the model which has the lowest error value. The results show that bumping outperforms bagging and the other predictors except for “Poster” product group. For the “Poster” product group, artificial neural network model performs better than the other models.
In the second step, we use the market basket analysis to extract association rules for co-purchased products. We can extract thirty one association rules according to values of Lift, Support, and Confidence measure. We set the minimum transaction frequency to support associations as 5%, maximum number of items in an association as 4, and minimum confidence for rule generation as 10%. This study also excludes the extracted association rules below 1 of lift value. We finally get fifteen association rules by excluding duplicate rules. Among the fifteen association rules, eleven rules contain association between products in “Office Supplies” product group, one rules include the association between “Office Supplies” and “Fashion” product groups, and other three rules contain association between “Office Supplies” and “Home Decoration” product groups. Finally, the proposed product recommender systems provides list of recommendations to the proper customers.
We test the usability of the proposed system by using prototype and real-world transaction and profile data. For this end, we construct the prototype system by using the ASP, Java Script and Microsoft Access. In addition, we survey about user satisfaction for the recommended product list from the proposed system and the randomly selected product lists. The participants for the survey are 173 persons who use MSN Messenger, Daum Caf?, and P2P services. We evaluate the user satisfaction using five-scale Likert measure. This study also performs “Paired Sample T-test” for the results of the survey. The results show that the proposed model outperforms the random selection model with 1% statistical significance level. It means that the users satisfied the recommended product list significantly. The results also show that the proposed system may be useful in real-world online shopping store.
Impact of Ensemble Member Size on Confidence-based Selection in Bankruptcy Prediction
Na-Ra Kim, Kyung-Shik Shin, and Hyunchul Ahn
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 55 ~ 71
The prediction model is the main factor affecting the performance of a knowledge-based system for bankruptcy prediction. Earlier studies on prediction modeling have focused on the building of a single best model using statistical and artificial intelligence techniques. However, since the mid-1980s, integration of multiple techniques (hybrid techniques) and, by extension, combinations of the outputs of several models (ensemble techniques) have, according to the experimental results, generally outperformed individual models. An ensemble is a technique that constructs a set of multiple models, combines their outputs, and produces one final prediction. The way in which the outputs of ensemble members are combined is one of the important issues affecting prediction accuracy. A variety of combination schemes have been proposed in order to improve prediction performance in ensembles. Each combination scheme has advantages and limitations, and can be influenced by domain and circumstance. Accordingly, decisions on the most appropriate combination scheme in a given domain and contingency are very difficult. This paper proposes a confidence-based selection approach as part of an ensemble bankruptcy-prediction scheme that can measure unified confidence, even if ensemble members produce different types of continuous-valued outputs. The present experimental results show that when varying the number of models to combine, according to the creation type of ensemble members, the proposed combination method offers the best performance in the ensemble having the largest number of models, even when compared with the methods most often employed in bankruptcy prediction.
The Audience Behavior-based Emotion Prediction Model for Personalized Service
Eun Chung Ryoo, Hyunchul Ahn, and Jae Kyeong Kim
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 73 ~ 85
Keywords : Emotion Prediction Model, Audience Experience, Gesture Recognition, Difference Image Method, Difference Image Method
Nowadays, in today’s information society, the importance of the knowledge service using the information to creative value is getting higher day by day. In addition, depending on the development of IT technology, it is ease to collect and use information. Also, many companies actively use customer information to marketing in a variety of industries. Into the 21st century, companies have been actively using the culture arts to manage corporate image and marketing closely linked to their commercial interests. But, it is difficult that companies attract or maintain consumer’s interest through their technology. For that reason, it is trend to perform cultural activities for tool of differentiation over many firms. Many firms used the customer’s experience to new marketing strategy in order to effectively respond to competitive market. Accordingly, it is emerging rapidly that the necessity of personalized service to provide a new experience for people based on the personal profile information that contains the characteristics of the individual. Like this, personalized service using customer’s individual profile information such as language, symbols, behavior, and emotions is very important today. Through this, we will be able to judge interaction between people and content and to maximize customer’s experience and satisfaction. There are various relative works provide customer-centered service. Specially, emotion recognition research is emerging recently. Existing researches experienced emotion recognition using mostly bio-signal. Most of researches are voice and face studies that have great emotional changes. However, there are several difficulties to predict people’s emotion caused by limitation of equipment and service environments. So, in this paper, we develop emotion prediction model based on vision-based interface to overcome existing limitations. Emotion recognition research based on people’s gesture and posture has been processed by several researchers. This paper developed a model that recognizes people’s emotional states through body gesture and posture using difference image method. And we found optimization validation model for four kinds of emotions’ prediction. A proposed model purposed to automatically determine and predict 4 human emotions (Sadness, Surprise, Joy, and Disgust). To build up the model, event booth was installed in the KOCCA’s lobby and we provided some proper stimulative movie to collect their body gesture and posture as the change of emotions. And then, we extracted body movements using difference image method. And we revised people data to build proposed model through neural network. The proposed model for emotion prediction used 3 type time-frame sets (20 frames, 30 frames, and 40 frames). And then, we adopted the model which has best performance compared with other models.’ Before build three kinds of models, the entire 97 data set were divided into three data sets of learning, test, and validation set. The proposed model for emotion prediction was constructed using artificial neural network. In this paper, we used the back-propagation algorithm as a learning method, and set learning rate to 10%, momentum rate to 10%. The sigmoid function was used as the transform function. And we designed a three-layer perceptron neural network with one hidden layer and four output nodes. Based on the test data set, the learning for this research model was stopped when it reaches 50000 after reaching the minimum error in order to explore the point of learning. We finally processed each model’s accuracy and found best model to predict each emotions. The result showed prediction accuracy 100% from sadness, and 96% from joy prediction in 20 frames set model. And 88% from surprise, and 98% from disgust in 30 frames set model. The findings of our research are expected to be useful to provide effective algorithm for personalized service in various industries such as advertisement, exhibition, performance, etc.
Data Analytics in Education : Current and Future Directions
Young Ok Kwon
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 87 ~ 100
Keywords : Bigdata, Analytics, Education Service, Curriculum, Curriculum
Massive increases in data available to an organization are creating a new opportunity for competitive advantage. In this era of big data, developing analytics capabilities, therefore, becomes critical to take advantage of internal and external data and gain insights for data-driven decision making. While, in comparison with business and government, the use of data in education is in its infancy, the potential for data analytics to impact education services is growing. Various information and communication technologies become increasingly embedded in class activities, and significantly more data on individual students are being captured and analyzed. Thus, for example, student academic performance can improve if instructional and curricular decisions are made based on the application of advanced analytics capabilities to student performance data. This paper focuses on education data and, in particular, how the data can be transformed into insights for improved education and can eventually be provided back to students in useful ways. First, in this paper, I survey how universities are currently using education data to improve students’ performance and administrative efficiency, and propose new ways of extending the current use. Some universities provide education programs that can help students choose a major or career path and recommend relevant courses to take to achieve the goal, based on their learning histories. In addition to academic performance data, some individual data from social network services can be used to encourage the involvement in extracurricular activities and as a result affect school performance. Technologies such as mobile phones and tablet computers allow educators and students access to rich online resources. Interactive whiteboards and digital textbooks can also provide multimedia and interactive elements, including video, audio, and images, that can help student understanding. Massive open online courses can be offered in conjunction with traditional classroom-based learning and there are many more opportunities using technologies and education resources available online. I suggest modular or flexible course programs which can suit each student’s interests, learning styles, learning pace, and etc. The best program can be selected for each student, by applying some recommendation algorithms based on the academic performance data of both current and previous students. Visualization technologies can also help students easily track their own progress and let them think of how they can improve and meet their goals by themselves. Academic-log data accumulated in student learning management systems can show each student’s activities on the system and can be used to identify each student’s learning styles and also find students who have difficulties in learning. Technologies and education data can also help to improve administrative functions and operational processes. More personalized supports can be offered to instructors to further their teaching skills, based on individual teaching experiences. Second, while most organizations try to capture the full potential of big data, it has been reported that the shortage of analytics and managerial talent is a significant and pressing problem and CIO survey results show that it is difficult for organizations to find the right people with deep analytical skills, referred to as data scientists. With the data scientist shortage, universities should be able to train professionals with data analytics skills. This paper discusses which skills are valuable to data scientists and introduces various training and certification programs offered by universities and industry. Government, industry, and academia should collaborate to make data science emerge as an academic discipline. I finally conclude the paper by exploring new curriculums where students, by themselves, can learn how to find and use relevant data. Since big data are now everywhere, universities should not only be able to utilize education data that they acquire for better and personalized education services, but also provide practical guidelines for students who want to obtain data analytics skills and foster data driven decision-making in any organization.
A Study on Recent Research Trend in Management of Technology Using Keywords Network Analysis
Jaechang Kho, Kuentae Cho, and Yoonho Cho
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 101 ~ 123
Keywords : Management of Technology, SNA, Keyword Analysis
Recently due to the advancements of science and information technology, the socio-economic business areas are changing from the industrial economy to a knowledge economy. Furthermore, companies need to do creation of new value through continuous innovation, development of core competencies and technologies, and technological convergence. Therefore, the identification of major trends in technology research and the interdisciplinary knowledge-based prediction of integrated technologies and promising techniques are required for firms to gain and sustain competitive advantage and future growth engines.
The aim of this paper is to understand the recent research trend in management of technology (MOT) and to foresee promising technologies with deep knowledge for both technology and business. Furthermore, this study intends to give a clear way to find new technical value for constant innovation and to capture core technology and technology convergence.
Bibliometrics is a metrical analysis to understand literature’s characteristics. Traditional bibliometrics has its limitation not to understand relationship between trend in technology management and technology itself, since it focuses on quantitative indices such as quotation frequency. To overcome this issue, the network focused bibliometrics has been used instead of traditional one. The network focused bibliometrics mainly uses “Co-citation” and “Co-word” analysis. In this study, a keywords network analysis, one of social network analysis, is performed to analyze recent research trend in MOT. For the analysis, we collected keywords from research papers published in international journals related MOT between 2002 and 2011, constructed a keyword network, and then conducted the keywords network analysis.
Over the past 40 years, the studies in social network have attempted to understand the social interactions through the network structure represented by connection patterns. In other words, social network analysis has been used to explain the structures and behaviors of various social formations such as teams, organizations, and industries. In general, the social network analysis uses data as a form of matrix. In our context, the matrix depicts the relations between rows as papers and columns as keywords, where the relations are represented as binary. Even though there are no direct relations between papers who have been published, the relations between papers can be derived artificially as in the paper-keyword matrix, in which each cell has 1 for including or 0 for not including. For example, a keywords network can be configured in a way to connect the papers which have included one or more same keywords. After constructing a keywords network, we analyzed frequency of keywords, structural characteristics of keywords network, preferential attachment and growth of new keywords, component, and centrality.
The results of this study are as follows. First, a paper has 4.574 keywords on the average. 90% of keywords were used three or less times for past 10 years and about 75% of keywords appeared only one time. Second, the keyword network in MOT is a small world network and a scale free network in which a small number of keywords have a tendency to become a monopoly. Third, the gap between the rich (with more edges) and the poor (with fewer edges) in the network is getting bigger as time goes on. Fourth, most of newly entering keywords become poor nodes within about 2~3 years. Finally, keywords with high degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality are “Innovation,” “R&D,” “Patent,” “Forecast,” “Technology transfer,” “Technology,” and “SME”. The results of analysis will help researchers identify major trends in MOT research and then seek a new research topic.
We hope that the result of the analysis will help researchers of MOT identify major trends in technology research, and utilize as useful reference information when they seek consilience with other fields of study and select a new research topic.
A Hybrid SVM Classifier for Imbalanced Data Sets
Jae Sik Lee, and Jong Gu Kwon
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 125 ~ 140
Keywords : Data Mining, Imbalanced Data Set, SVM
We call a data set in which the number of records belonging to a certain class far outnumbers the number of records belonging to the other class, ‘imbalanced data set’. Most of the classification techniques perform poorly on imbalanced data sets. When we evaluate the performance of a certain classification technique, we need to measure not only ‘accuracy’ but also ‘sensitivity’ and ‘specificity'. In a customer churn prediction problem, ‘retention’ records account for the majority class, and ‘churn’ records account for the minority class. Sensitivity measures the proportion of actual retentions which are correctly identified as such. Specificity measures the proportion of churns which are correctly identified as such. The poor performance of the classification techniques on imbalanced data sets is due to the low value of specificity.
Many previous researches on imbalanced data sets employed ‘oversampling’ technique where members of the minority class are sampled more than those of the majority class in order to make a relatively balanced data set. When a classification model is constructed using this oversampled balanced data set, specificity can be improved but sensitivity will be decreased.
In this research, we developed a hybrid model of support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and decision tree, that improves specificity while maintaining sensitivity. We named this hybrid model ‘hybrid SVM model.’ The process of construction and prediction of our hybrid SVM model is as follows.
By oversampling from the original imbalanced data set, a balanced data set is prepared. SVM_I model and ANN_I model are constructed using the imbalanced data set, and SVM_B model is constructed using the balanced data set. SVM_I model is superior in sensitivity and SVM_B model is superior in specificity. For a record on which both SVM_I model and SVM_B model make the same prediction, that prediction becomes the final solution. If they make different prediction, the final solution is determined by the discrimination rules obtained by ANN and decision tree. For a record on which SVM_I model and SVM_B model make different predictions, a decision tree model is constructed using ANN_I output value as input and actual retention or churn as target. We obtained the following two discrimination rules: ‘IF ANN_I output value <0.285, THEN Final Solution = Retention’ and ‘IF ANN_I output value ≥0.285, THEN Final Solution = Churn.’ The threshold 0.285 is the value optimized for the data used in this research. The result we present in this research is the structure or framework of our hybrid SVM model, not a specific threshold value such as 0.285. Therefore, the threshold value in the above discrimination rules can be changed to any value depending on the data.
In order to evaluate the performance of our hybrid SVM model, we used the ‘churn data set’ in UCI Machine Learning Repository, that consists of 85% retention customers and 15% churn customers. Accuracy of the hybrid SVM model is 91.08% that is better than that of SVM_I model or SVM_B model. The points worth noticing here are its sensitivity, 95.02%, and specificity, 69.24%. The sensitivity of SVM_I model is 94.65%, and the specificity of SVM_B model is 67.00%. Therefore the hybrid SVM model developed in this research improves the specificity of SVM_B model while maintaining the sensitivity of SVM_I model.
Analysis on Factors Influencing Welfare Spending of Local Authority : Implementing the Detailed Data Extracted from the Social Security Information System
Kyoung-June Kim, Young-Jin Ham, and Ki-Dong Lee
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 141 ~ 156
Keywords : Local Authority, Welfare Spending, Self-Funded Welfare Service, Welfare Effort, Welfare Effort
Researchers in welfare services of local government in Korea have rather been on isolated issues as disables, childcare, aging phenomenon, etc. (Kang, 2004; Jung et al., 2009). Lately, local officials, yet, realize that they need more comprehensive welfare services for all residents, not just for above-mentioned focused groups. Still cases dealt with focused group approach have been a main research stream due to various reason(Jung et al., 2009; Lee, 2009; Jang, 2011).
Social Security Information System is an information system that comprehensively manages 292 welfare benefits provided by 17 ministries and 40 thousand welfare services provided by 230 local authorities in Korea. The purpose of the system is to improve efficiency of social welfare delivery process. The study of local government expenditure has been on the rise over the last few decades after the restarting the local autonomy, but these studies have limitations on data collection.
Measurement of a local government’s welfare efforts(spending) has been primarily on expenditures or budget for an individual, set aside for welfare. This practice of using monetary value for an individual as a “proxy value” for welfare effort(spending) is based on the assumption that expenditure is directly linked to welfare efforts(Lee et al., 2007). This expenditure/budget approach commonly uses total welfare amount or percentage figure as dependent variables (Wildavsky, 1985; Lee et al., 2007; Kang, 2000). However, current practice of using actual amount being used or percentage figure as a dependent variable may have some limitation; since budget or expenditure is greatly influenced by the total budget of a local government, relying on such monetary value may create inflate or deflate the true “welfare effort” (Jang, 2012). In addition, government budget usually contain a large amount of administrative cost, i.e., salary, for local officials, which is highly unrelated to the actual welfare expenditure (Jang, 2011).
This paper used local government welfare service data from the detailed data sets linked to the Social Security Information System. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that affect social welfare spending of 230 local authorities in 2012. The paper applied multiple regression based model to analyze the pooled financial data from the system. Based on the regression analysis, the following factors affecting self-funded welfare spending were identified.
In our research model, we use the welfare budget/total budget(%) of a local government as a true measurement for a local government’s welfare effort(spending). Doing so, we exclude central government subsidies or support being used for local welfare service. It is because central government welfare support does not truly reflect the welfare efforts(spending) of a local.
The dependent variable of this paper is the volume of the welfare spending and the independent variables of the model are comprised of three categories, in terms of socio-demographic perspectives, the local economy and the financial capacity of local government. This paper categorized local authorities into 3 groups, districts, and cities and suburb areas. The model used a dummy variable as the control variable (local political factor). This paper demonstrated that the volume of the welfare spending for the welfare services is commonly influenced by the ratio of welfare budget to total local budget, the population of infants, self-reliance ratio and the level of unemployment factor. Interestingly, the influential factors are different by the size of local government.
Analysis of determinants of local government self-welfare spending, we found a significant effect of local Gov. Finance characteristic in degree of the local government’s financial independence, financial independence rate, rate of social welfare budget, and regional economic in opening-to-application ratio, and sociology of population in rate of infants.
The result means that local authorities should have differentiated welfare strategies according to their conditions and circumstances. There is a meaning that this paper has successfully proven the significant factors influencing welfare spending of local government in Korea.
NFC-based Smartwork Service Model Design
Arum Park, Min Su Kang, Jungho Jun, and Kyoung Jun Lee
Vol. 19, No. 2, Page: 157 ~ 175
Keywords : Smartwork, NFC(Near Field Communication), Space Management, Service Design, Service Design
Since Korean government announced ‘Smartwork promotion strategy’ in 2010, Korean firms and government organizations have started to adopt smartwork. However, the smartwork has been implemented only in a few of large enterprises and government organizations rather than SMEs (small and medium enterprises). In USA, both Yahoo! and Best Buy have stopped their flexible work because of its reported low productivity and job loafing problems. In addition, according to the literature on smartwork, we could draw obstacles of smartwork adoption and categorize them into the three types: institutional, organizational, and technological. The first category of smartwork adoption obstacles, institutional, include the difficulties of smartwork performance evaluation metrics, the lack of readiness of organizational processes, limitation of smartwork types and models, lack of employee participation in smartwork adoption procedure, high cost of building smartwork system, and insufficiency of government support. The second category, organizational, includes limitation of the organization hierarchy, wrong perception of employees and employers, a difficulty in close collaboration, low productivity with remote coworkers, insufficient understanding on remote working, and lack of training about smartwork. The third category, technological, obstacles include security concern of mobile work, lack of specialized solution, and lack of adoption and operation know-how.
To overcome the current problems of smartwork in reality and the reported obstacles in literature, we suggest a novel smartwork service model based on NFC(Near Field Communication). This paper suggests NFC-based Smartwork Service Model composed of NFC-based Smartworker networking service and NFC-based Smartwork space management service.
NFC-based smartworker networking service is comprised of NFC-based communication/SNS service and NFC-based recruiting/job seeking service. NFC-based communication/SNS Service Model supplements the key shortcomings that existing smartwork service model has. By connecting to existing legacy system of a company through NFC tags and systems, the low productivity and the difficulty of collaboration and attendance management can be overcome since managers can get work processing information, work time information and work space information of employees and employees can do real-time communication with coworkers and get location information of coworkers. Shortly, this service model has features such as affordable system cost, provision of location-based information, and possibility of knowledge accumulation. NFC-based recruiting/job-seeking service provides new value by linking NFC tag service and sharing economy sites. This service model has features such as easiness of service attachment and removal, efficient space-based work provision, easy search of location-based recruiting/ job-seeking information, and system flexibility. This service model combines advantages of sharing economy sites with the advantages of NFC. By cooperation with sharing economy sites, the model can provide recruiters with human resource who finds not only long-term works but also short-term works. Additionally, SMEs (Small Medium-sized Enterprises) can easily find job seeker by attaching NFC tags to any spaces at which human resource with qualification may be located. In short, this service model helps efficient human resource distribution by providing location of job hunters and job applicants.
NFC-based smartwork space management service can promote smartwork by linking NFC tags attached to the work space and existing smartwork system. This service has features such as low cost, provision of indoor and outdoor location information, and customized service. In particular, this model can help small company adopt smartwork system because it is light-weight system and cost-effective compared to existing smartwork system.
This paper proposes the scenarios of the service models, the roles and incentives of the participants, and the comparative analysis. The superiority of NFC-based smartwork service model is shown by comparing and analyzing the new service models and the existing service models. The service model can expand scope of enterprises and organizations that adopt smartwork and expand the scope of employees that take advantages of smartwork.

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