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Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems,
Vol. 21, No. 1, March 2015
Korean Word Sense Disambiguation using Dictionary and Corpus
Hanjo Jeong, and Byeonghwa Park
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 1 ~ 13
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.01
Keywords : Word Sense Disambiguation, Natural Language Processing, Merged Corpus, Vector Space Model
Abstract
As opinion mining in big data applications has been highlighted, a lot of research on unstructured data has made. Lots of social media on the Internet generate unstructured or semi-structured data every second and they are often made by natural or human languages we use in daily life. Many words in human languages have multiple meanings or senses. In this result, it is very difficult for computers to extract useful information from these datasets. Traditional web search engines are usually based on keyword search, resulting in incorrect search results which are far from users’ intentions. Even though a lot of progress in enhancing the performance of search engines has made over the last years in order to provide users with appropriate results, there is still so much to improve it. Word sense disambiguation can play a very important role in dealing with natural language processing and is considered as one of the most difficult problems in this area. Major approaches to word sense disambiguation can be classified as knowledge-base, supervised corpus-based, and unsupervised corpus-based approaches.
This paper presents a method which automatically generates a corpus for word sense disambiguation by taking advantage of examples in existing dictionaries and avoids expensive sense tagging processes. It experiments the effectiveness of the method based on Naïve Bayes Model, which is one of supervised learning algorithms, by using Korean standard unabridged dictionary and Sejong Corpus. Korean standard unabridged dictionary has approximately 57,000 sentences. Sejong Corpus has about 790,000 sentences tagged with part-of-speech and senses all together. For the experiment of this study, Korean standard unabridged dictionary and Sejong Corpus were experimented as a combination and separate entities using cross validation. Only nouns, target subjects in word sense disambiguation, were selected. 93,522 word senses among 265,655 nouns and 56,914 sentences from related proverbs and examples were additionally combined in the corpus. Sejong Corpus was easily merged with Korean standard unabridged dictionary because Sejong Corpus was tagged based on sense indices defined by Korean standard unabridged dictionary. Sense vectors were formed after the merged corpus was created. Terms used in creating sense vectors were added in the named entity dictionary of Korean morphological analyzer. By using the extended named entity dictionary, term vectors were extracted from the input sentences and then term vectors for the sentences were created. Given the extracted term vector and the sense vector model made during the pre-processing stage, the sense-tagged terms were determined by the vector space model based word sense disambiguation.
In addition, this study shows the effectiveness of merged corpus from examples in Korean standard unabridged dictionary and Sejong Corpus. The experiment shows the better results in precision and recall are found with the merged corpus. This study suggests it can practically enhance the performance of internet search engines and help us to understand more accurate meaning of a sentence in natural language processing pertinent to search engines, opinion mining, and text mining. Naïve Bayes classifier used in this study represents a supervised learning algorithm and uses Bayes theorem. Naïve Bayes classifier has an assumption that all senses are independent. Even though the assumption of Naïve Bayes classifier is not realistic and ignores the correlation between attributes, Naïve Bayes classifier is widely used because of its simplicity and in practice it is known to be very effective in many applications such as text classification and medical diagnosis. However, further research need to be carried out to consider all possible combinations and/or partial combinations of all senses in a sentence. Also, the effectiveness of word sense disambiguation may be improved if rhetorical structures or morphological dependencies between words are analyzed through syntactic analysis.
A personalized recommendation procedure with contextual information
Hyun Sil Moon, Il Young Choi, and Jae Kyeong Kim
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 15 ~ 28
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.15
Keywords : context-aware recommender system; recommender system; collaborative filtering; contextual information; contextual boundary
Abstract
As personal devices and pervasive technologies for interacting with networked objects continue to proliferate, there is an unprecedented world of scattered pieces of contextualized information available. However, the explosive growth and variety of information ironically lead users and service providers to make poor decision. In this situation, recommender systems may be a valuable alternative for dealing with these information overload. But they failed to utilize various types of contextual information. In this study, we suggest a methodology for context-aware recommender systems based on the concept of contextual boundary. First, as we suggest contextual boundary-based profiling which reflects contextual data with proper interpretation and structure, we attempt to solve complexity problem in context-aware recommender systems. Second, in neighbor formation with contextual information, our methodology can be expected to solve sparsity and cold-start problem in traditional recommender systems. Finally, we suggest a methodology about context support score-based recommendation generation. Consequently, our methodology can be first step for expanding application of researches on recommender systems. Moreover, as we suggest a flexible model with consideration of new technological development, it will show high performance regardless of their domains. Therefore, we expect that marketers or service providers can easily adopt according to their technical support.
Response Modeling for the Marketing Promotion with Weighted Case Based Reasoning Under Imbalanced Data Distribution
Eunmi Kim, and Taeho Hong
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 29 ~ 45
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.29
Keywords : Customer response, prediction model, Case-based reasoning, feature weights, imbalanced data
Abstract
Response modeling is a well-known research issue for those who have tried to get more superior performance in the capability of predicting the customers’ response for the marketing promotion. The response model for customers would reduce the marketing cost by identifying prospective customers from very large customer database and predicting the purchasing intention of the selected customers while the promotion which is derived from an undifferentiated marketing strategy results in unnecessary cost. In addition, the big data environment has accelerated developing the response model with data mining techniques such as CBR, neural networks and support vector machines. And CBR is one of the most major tools in business because it is known as simple and robust to apply to the response model. However, CBR is an attractive data mining technique for data mining applications in business even though it hasn’t shown high performance compared to other machine learning techniques. Thus many studies have tried to improve CBR and utilized in business data mining with the enhanced algorithms or the support of other techniques such as genetic algorithm, decision tree and AHP (Analytic Process Hierarchy). Ahn and Kim(2008) utilized logit, neural networks, CBR to predict that which customers would purchase the items promoted by marketing department and tried to optimized the number of k for k-nearest neighbor with genetic algorithm for the purpose of improving the performance of the integrated model. Hong and Park(2009) noted that the integrated approach with CBR for logit, neural networks, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) showed more improved prediction ability for response of customers to marketing promotion than each data mining models such as logit, neural networks, and SVM.
This paper presented an approach to predict customers’ response of marketing promotion with Case Based Reasoning. The proposed model was developed by applying different weights to each feature. We deployed logit model with a database including the promotion and the purchasing data of bath soap. After that, the coefficients were used to give different weights of CBR. We analyzed the performance of proposed weighted CBR based model compared to neural networks and pure CBR based model empirically and found that the proposed weighted CBR based model showed more superior performance than pure CBR model.
Imbalanced data is a common problem to build data mining model to classify a class with real data such as bankruptcy prediction, intrusion detection, fraud detection, churn management, and response modeling. Imbalanced data means that the number of instance in one class is remarkably small or large compared to the number of instance in other classes. The classification model such as response modeling has a lot of trouble to recognize the pattern from data through learning because the model tends to ignore a small number of classes while classifying a large number of classes correctly. To resolve the problem caused from imbalanced data distribution, sampling method is one of the most representative approach. The sampling method could be categorized to under sampling and over sampling. However, CBR is not sensitive to data distribution because it doesn’t learn from data unlike machine learning algorithm. In this study, we investigated the robustness of our proposed model while changing the ratio of response customers and nonresponse customers to the promotion program because the response customers for the suggested promotion is always a small part of nonresponse customers in the real world. We simulated the proposed model 100 times to validate the robustness with different ratio of response customers to response customers under the imbalanced data distribution. Finally, we found that our proposed CBR based model showed superior performance than compared models under the imbalanced data sets. Our study is expected to improve the performance of response model for the promotion program with CBR under imbalanced data distribution in the real world.
Case Study on the Enterprise Microblog Usage: Focusing on Knowledge Management Strategy
Min Su Kang, Arum Park, and Kyoung-Jun Lee
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 47 ~ 63
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.47
Keywords : Enterprise Microblog, EMB, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Management Strategy, Case Study, Contents Analysis
Abstract
As knowledge is paid attention as a new production factor that generates added value, studies continue to apply knowledge management to business environment. In addition, as ICT (Information Communication Technology) was engrafted in business environment, it leads to increasing task efficiency and productivity of individual workers. Accordingly, the way that a business achieves its goal has changed to one in which its individual members are willing to take part in the organization and share information to create new values (Han, 2003) and studies for the system and service to support such transition are carrying out. Of late, a new concept called ‘Enterprise 2.0’ newly appears. It is the extension of Wen 2.0 and its technology, which focus on participation, sharing and openness, to the work environment of a business (Jung, 2013).
Enterprise 2.0 is being used as a collaborative tool to prop up individual creativity and group brain power by combining Web 2.0 technologies such as blog, Wiki, RSS and tag with business software (McAfee, 2006). As Tweeter gets popular, Enterprise Microblog (EMB), which is an example of Enterprise 2.0 for business, has been developed as equivalent to Tweeter in business circle and SaaS (Software as a Service) such as Yammer was introduced The studies of EMB mainly focus on demonstrating its usability in terms of intra-firm communication and knowledge management. However existing studies lean too much towards large-sized companies and certain departments, rather than a company as a whole. Therefore, few studies have been conducted on small and medium-sized companies that have difficulty preparing separate resources and supplying exclusive workforce to introduce knowledge management.
In this respect, the present study placed its analytic focus on small-sized companies actually equipped with EMB to know how they use it. And, based on the findings, this study examined their knowledge management strategies for EMB from the point of codification and personalization. Hypothesis –“as a company grows, it shifts EMB strategy from codification to personalization’- was established on the basis of reviewing precedent studies and literature. To demonstrate the hypothesis, this study analyzed the usage of EMB by small companies that have used it from foundation. For case study, the duration of the use was divided into 2 spans and longitudinal analysis was employed to examine the contents of the blogs. Using the key findings of the analysis, this study is aimed to propose practical implications for the operation of knowledge management of small-sized company and the suitable application of knowledge management system for operation Knowledge Management Strategy can be classified by codification strategy and personalization strategy (Hansen et. al., 1999), and how to manage the two strategies were always studied. Also, current studies regarding the knowledge management strategy were targeted mostly for major companies, resulting in lack of studies in how it can be applied on SMEs. This research, with the knowledge management strategy suited for SMEs, sets an Enterprise Microblog (EMB), and with the EMB applied on SMEs’ Knowledge Management Strategy, it is reviewed on the perspective of SMEs’ Codification and Personalization Strategies. Through the advanced research regarding Knowledge Management Strategy and EMB, the hypothesis is set that “Depending on the development of the company, the main application of EMB alters from Codification Strategy to Personalization Strategy.” To check the hypothesis, SME that have used the EMB called ‘Yammer’ was analyzed from the date of their foundation until today. The case study has implemented longitudinal analysis which divides the period when the EMBs were used into three stages and analyzes the contents. As the result of the study, this suggests a substantial implication regarding the application of Knowledge Management Strategy and its Knowledge Management System that is suitable for SME.
Text Mining-Based Emerging Trend Analysis for the Aviation Industry
Hyun-jung Kim, Nam-ok Jo, and Kyung-shik Shin
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 65 ~ 82
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.65
Keywords : Aviation, Big Data Analysis, Text Mining, Topic Analysis, Emerging Trend Analysis
Abstract
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in finding core issues and analyzing emerging trends for the future. This represents efforts to devise national strategies and policies based on the selection of promising areas that can create economic and social added value. The existing studies, including those dedicated to the discovery of future promising fields, have mostly been dependent on qualitative research methods such as literature review and expert judgement. Deriving results from large amounts of information under this approach is both costly and time consuming. Efforts have been made to make up for the weaknesses of the conventional qualitative analysis approach designed to select key promising areas through discovery of future core issues and emerging trend analysis in various areas of academic research. There needs to be a paradigm shift in toward implementing qualitative research methods along with quantitative research methods like text mining in a mutually complementary manner.
The change is to ensure objective and practical emerging trend analysis results based on large amounts of data. However, even such studies have had shortcoming related to their dependence on simple keywords for analysis, which makes it difficult to derive meaning from data. Besides, no study has been carried out so far to develop core issues and analyze emerging trends in special domains like the aviation industry. The change used to implement recent studies is being witnessed in various areas such as the steel industry, the information and communications technology industry, the construction industry in architectural engineering and so on.
This study focused on retrieving aviation-related core issues and emerging trends from overall research papers pertaining to aviation through text mining, which is one of the big data analysis techniques. In this manner, the promising future areas for the air transport industry are selected based on objective data from aviation-related research papers. In order to compensate for the difficulties in grasping the meaning of single words in emerging trend analysis at keyword levels, this study will adopt topic analysis, which is a technique used to find out general themes latent in text document sets. The analysis will lead to the extraction of topics, which represent keyword sets, thereby discovering core issues and conducting emerging trend analysis. Based on the issues, it identified aviation-related research trends and selected the promising areas for the future.
Research on core issue retrieval and emerging trend analysis for the aviation industry based on big data analysis is still in its incipient stages. So, the analysis targets for this study are restricted to data from aviation-related research papers. However, it has significance in that it prepared a quantitative analysis model for continuously monitoring the derived core issues and presenting directions regarding the areas with good prospects for the future. In the future, the scope is slated to expand to cover relevant domestic or international news articles and bidding information as well, thus increasing the reliability of analysis results.
On the basis of the topic analysis results, core issues for the aviation industry will be determined. Then, emerging trend analysis for the issues will be implemented by year in order to identify the changes they undergo in time series. Through these procedures, this study aims to prepare a system for developing key promising areas for the future aviation industry as well as for ensuring rapid response. Additionally, the promising areas selected based on the aforementioned results and the analysis of pertinent policy research reports will be compared with the areas in which the actual government investments are made. The results from this comparative analysis are expected to make useful reference materials for future policy development and budget establishment.
Annotation Method based on Face Area for Efficient Interactive Video Authoring
Ui Nyoung Yoon, Myeong Hyeon Ga, and Geun-Sik Jo
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 83 ~ 98
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.83
Keywords : Interactive Video, Authoring Tool, Annotation, Shot Sequence Alignment
Abstract
Many TV viewers use mainly portal sites in order to retrieve information related to broadcast while watching TV. However retrieving information that people wanted needs a lot of time to retrieve the information because current internet presents too much information which is not required. Consequentially, this process can’t satisfy users who want to consume information immediately. Interactive video is being actively investigated to solve this problem. An interactive video provides clickable objects, areas or hotspots to interact with users. When users click object on the interactive video, they can see additional information, related to video, instantly. The following shows the three basic procedures to make an interactive video using interactive video authoring tool:
(1) Create an augmented object;
(2) Set an object’s area and time to be displayed on the video;
(3) Set an interactive action which is related to pages or hyperlink;
However users who use existing authoring tools such as Popcorn Maker and Zentrick spend a lot of time in step (2). If users use wireWAX then they can save sufficient time to set object's location and time to be displayed because wireWAX uses vision based annotation method. But they need to wait for time to detect and track object. Therefore, it is required to reduce the process time in step (2) using benefits of manual annotation method and vision-based annotation method effectively. This paper proposes a novel annotation method allows annotator to easily annotate based on face area. For proposing new annotation method, this paper presents two steps: pre-processing step and annotation step. The pre-processing is necessary because system detects shots for users who want to find contents of video easily. Pre-processing step is as follow: 1) Extract shots using color histogram based shot boundary detection method from frames of video; 2) Make shot clusters using similarities of shots and aligns as shot sequences; and 3) Detect and track faces from all shots of shot sequence metadata and save into the shot sequence metadata with each shot. After pre-processing, user can annotates object as follow: 1) Annotator selects a shot sequence, and then selects keyframe of shot in the shot sequence; 2) Annotator annotates objects on the relative position of the actor’s face on the selected keyframe. Then same objects will be annotated automatically until the end of shot sequence which has detected face area; and 3) User assigns additional information to the annotated object. In addition, this paper designs the feedback model in order to compensate the defects which are wrong aligned shots, wrong detected faces problem and inaccurate location problem might occur after object annotation. Furthermore, users can use interpolation method to interpolate position of objects which is deleted by feedback. After feedback user can save annotated object data to the interactive object metadata. Finally, this paper shows interactive video authoring system implemented for verifying performance of proposed annotation method which uses presented models. In the experiment presents analysis of object annotation time, and user evaluation. First, result of object annotation average time shows our proposed tool is 2 times faster than existing authoring tools for object annotation. Sometimes, annotation time of proposed tool took longer than existing authoring tools, because wrong shots are detected in the pre-processing. The usefulness and convenience of the system were measured through the user evaluation which was aimed at users who have experienced in interactive video authoring system. Recruited 19 experts evaluates of 11 questions which is out of CSUQ(Computer System Usability Questionnaire). CSUQ is designed by IBM for evaluating system. Through the user evaluation, showed that proposed tool is useful for authoring interactive video than about 10% of the other interactive video authoring systems.
Applying Meta-model Formalization of Part-Whole Relationship to UML: Experiment on Classification of Aggregation and Composition
Taekyung Kim
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 99 ~ 118
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.99
Keywords : Conceptual Modeling, Information System Development, UML, Part-Whole Relationship
Abstract
Object-oriented programming languages have been widely selected for developing modern information systems. The use of concepts relating to object-oriented (OO, in short) programming has reduced efforts of reusing pre-existing codes, and the OO concepts have been proved to be a useful in interpreting system requirements. In line with this, we have witnessed that a modern conceptual modeling approach supports features of object-oriented programming. Unified Modeling Language or UML becomes one of de-facto standards for information system designers since the language provides a set of visual diagrams, comprehensive frameworks and flexible expressions. In a modeling process, UML users need to consider relationships between classes. Based on an explicit and clear representation of classes, the conceptual model from UML garners necessarily attributes and methods for guiding software engineers. Especially, identifying an association between a class of part and a class of whole is included in the standard grammar of UML. The representation of part-whole relationship is natural in a real world domain since many physical objects are perceived as part-whole relationship. In addition, even abstract concepts such as roles are easily identified by part-whole perception. It seems that a representation of part-whole in UML is reasonable and useful. However, it should be admitted that the use of UML is limited due to the lack of practical guidelines on how to identify a part-whole relationship and how to classify it into an aggregate- or a composite-association. Research efforts on developing the procedure knowledge is meaningful and timely in that misleading perception to part-whole relationship is hard to be filtered out in an initial conceptual modeling thus resulting in deterioration of system usability. The current method on identifying and classifying part-whole relationships is mainly counting on linguistic expression. This simple approach is rooted in the idea that a phrase of representing has-a constructs a par-whole perception between objects. If the relationship is strong, the association is classified as a composite association of part-whole relationship. In other cases, the relationship is an aggregate association. Admittedly, linguistic expressions contain clues for part-whole relationships; therefore, the approach is reasonable and cost-effective in general. Nevertheless, it does not cover concerns on accuracy and theoretical legitimacy. Research efforts on developing guidelines for part-whole identification and classification has not been accumulated sufficient achievements to solve this issue. The purpose of this study is to provide step-by-step guidelines for identifying and classifying part-whole relationships in the context of UML use. Based on the theoretical work on Meta-model Formalization, self-check forms that help conceptual modelers work on part-whole classes are developed. To evaluate the performance of suggested idea, an experiment approach was adopted. The findings show that UML users obtain better results with the guidelines based on Meta-model Formalization compared to a natural language classification scheme conventionally recommended by UML theorists. This study contributed to the stream of research effort about part-whole relationships by extending applicability of Meta-model Formalization. Compared to traditional approaches that target to establish criterion for evaluating a result of conceptual modeling, this study expands the scope to a process of modeling. Traditional theories on evaluation of part-whole relationship in the context of conceptual modeling aim to rule out incomplete or wrong representations. It is posed that qualification is still important; but, the lack of consideration on providing a practical alternative may reduce appropriateness of posterior inspection for modelers who want to reduce errors or misperceptions about part-whole identification and classification. The findings of this study can be further developed by introducing more comprehensive variables and real-world settings. In addition, it is highly recommended to replicate and extend the suggested idea of utilizing Meta-model formalization by creating different alternative forms of guidelines including plugins for integrated development environments.
Predictive Clustering-based Collaborative Filtering Technique for Performance-Stability of Recommendation System
O-Joun Lee, and Eun-Soon You
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 119 ~ 142
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.119
Keywords : Recommendation System, Adaptive System, Collaborative Filtering, Hybrid Filtering, Clustering
Abstract
With the explosive growth in the volume of information, Internet users are experiencing considerable difficulties in obtaining necessary information online. Against this backdrop, ever-greater importance is being placed on a recommender system that provides information catered to user preferences and tastes in an attempt to address issues associated with information overload. To this end, a number of techniques have been proposed, including content-based filtering (CBF), demographic filtering (DF) and collaborative filtering (CF). Among them, CBF and DF require external information and thus cannot be applied to a variety of domains. CF, on the other hand, is widely used since it is relatively free from the domain constraint.
The CF technique is broadly classified into memory-based CF, model-based CF and hybrid CF. Model-based CF addresses the drawbacks of CF by considering the Bayesian model, clustering model or dependency network model. This filtering technique not only improves the sparsity and scalability issues but also boosts predictive performance. However, it involves expensive model-building and results in a tradeoff between performance and scalability. Such tradeoff is attributed to reduced coverage, which is a type of sparsity issues. In addition, expensive model-building may lead to performance instability since changes in the domain environment cannot be immediately incorporated into the model due to high costs involved. Cumulative changes in the domain environment that have failed to be reflected eventually undermine system performance.
This study incorporates the Markov model of transition probabilities and the concept of fuzzy clustering with CBCF to propose predictive clustering-based CF (PCCF) that solves the issues of reduced coverage and of unstable performance. The method improves performance instability by tracking the changes in user preferences and bridging the gap between the static model and dynamic users. Furthermore, the issue of reduced coverage also improves by expanding the coverage based on transition probabilities and clustering probabilities.
The proposed method consists of four processes. First, user preferences are normalized in preference clustering. Second, changes in user preferences are detected from review score entries during preference transition detection. Third, user propensities are normalized using patterns of changes (propensities) in user preferences in propensity clustering. Lastly, the preference prediction model is developed to predict user preferences for items during preference prediction.
The proposed method has been validated by testing the robustness of performance instability and scalability-performance tradeoff. The initial test compared and analyzed the performance of individual recommender systems each enabled by IBCF, CBCF, ICFEC and PCCF under an environment where data sparsity had been minimized. The following test adjusted the optimal number of clusters in CBCF, ICFEC and PCCF for a comparative analysis of subsequent changes in the system performance. The test results revealed that the suggested method produced insignificant improvement in performance in comparison with the existing techniques. In addition, it failed to achieve significant improvement in the standard deviation that indicates the degree of data fluctuation. Notwithstanding, it resulted in marked improvement over the existing techniques in terms of range that indicates the level of performance fluctuation. The level of performance fluctuation before and after the model generation improved by 51.31% in the initial test. Then in the following test, there has been 36.05% improvement in the level of performance fluctuation driven by the changes in the number of clusters. This signifies that the proposed method, despite the slight performance improvement, clearly offers better performance stability compared to the existing techniques.
Further research on this study will be directed toward enhancing the recommendation performance that failed to demonstrate significant improvement over the existing techniques. The future research will consider the introduction of a high-dimensional parameter-free clustering algorithm or deep learning-based model in order to improve performance in recommendations.
An Analysis of IT Trends Using Tweet Data
Jin Baek Yi, Choong Kwon Lee, and Kyung Jin Cha
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 143 ~ 159
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.143
Keywords : IT Trends, Tweeter, Tweet Data, Social Network Service
Abstract
Predicting IT trends has been a long and important subject for information systems research. IT trend prediction makes it possible to acknowledge emerging eras of innovation and allocate budgets to prepare against rapidly changing technological trends. Towards the end of each year, various domestic and global organizations predict and announce IT trends for the following year. For example, Gartner Predicts 10 top IT trend during the next year, and these predictions affect IT and industry leaders and organization’s basic assumptions about technology and the future of IT, but the accuracy of these reports are difficult to verify. Social media data can be useful tool to verify the accuracy. As social media services have gained in popularity, it is used in a variety of ways, from posting about personal daily life to keeping up to date with news and trends. In the recent years, rates of social media activity in Korea have reached unprecedented levels. Hundreds of millions of users now participate in online social networks and communicate with colleague and friends their opinions and thoughts. In particular, Twitter is currently the major micro blog service, it has an important function named ‘tweets’ which is to report their current thoughts and actions, comments on news and engage in discussions. For an analysis on IT trends, we chose Tweet data because not only it produces massive unstructured textual data in real time but also it serves as an influential channel for opinion leading on technology. Previous studies found that the tweet data provides useful information and detects the trend of society effectively, these studies also identifies that Twitter can track the issue faster than the other media, newspapers. Therefore, this study investigates how frequently the predicted IT trends for the following year announced by public organizations are mentioned on social network services like Twitter. IT trend predictions for 2013, announced near the end of 2012 from two domestic organizations, the National IT Industry Promotion Agency (NIPA) and the National Information Society Agency (NIA), were used as a basis for this research. The present study analyzes the Twitter data generated from Seoul (Korea) compared with the predictions of the two organizations to analyze the differences. Thus, Twitter data analysis requires various natural language processing techniques, including the removal of stop words, and noun extraction for processing various unrefined forms of unstructured data. To overcome these challenges, we used SAS IRS (Information Retrieval Studio) developed by SAS to capture the trend in real-time processing big stream datasets of Twitter. The system offers a framework for crawling, normalizing, analyzing, indexing and searching tweet data. As a result, we have crawled the entire Twitter sphere in Seoul area and obtained 21,589 tweets in 2013 to review how frequently the IT trend topics announced by the two organizations were mentioned by the people in Seoul. The results shows that most IT trend predicted by NIPA and NIA were all frequently mentioned in Twitter except some topics such as ‘new types of security threat’, ‘green IT’, ‘next generation semiconductor’ since these topics non generalized compound words so they can be mentioned in Twitter with other words. To answer whether the IT trend tweets from Korea is related to the following year's IT trends in real world, we compared Twitter’s trending topics with those in Nara Market, Korea's online e-Procurement system which is a nationwide web-based procurement system, dealing with whole procurement process of all public organizations in Korea. The correlation analysis show that Tweet frequencies on IT trending topics predicted by NIPA and NIA are significantly correlated with frequencies on IT topics mentioned in project announcements by Nara market in 2012 and 2013. The main contribution of our research can be found in the following aspects: i) the IT topic predictions announced by NIPA and NIA can provide an effective guideline to IT professionals and researchers in Korea who are looking for verified IT topic trends in the following topic, ii) researchers can use Twitter to get some useful ideas to detect and predict dynamic trends of technological and social issues.
Detection of Phantom Transaction using Data Mining: The Case of Agricultural Product Wholesale Market
Seon Ah Lee, and Namsik Chang
Vol. 21, No. 1, Page: 161 ~ 177
10.13088/jiis.2015.21.1.161
Keywords : agricultural product wholesale market, phantom transaction, fraud detection, data mining, decision-tree induction approach
Abstract
With the rapid evolution of technology, the size, number, and the type of databases has increased concomitantly, so data mining approaches face many challenging applications from databases. One such application is discovery of fraud patterns from agricultural product wholesale transaction instances.
The agricultural product wholesale market in Korea is huge, and vast numbers of transactions have been made every day. The demand for agricultural products continues to grow, and the use of electronic auction systems raises the efficiency of operations of wholesale market. Certainly, the number of unusual transactions is also assumed to be increased in proportion to the trading amount, where an unusual transaction is often the first sign of fraud. However, it is very difficult to identify and detect these transactions and the corresponding fraud occurred in agricultural product wholesale market because the types of fraud are more intelligent than ever before. The fraud can be detected by verifying the overall transaction records manually, but it requires significant amount of human resources, and ultimately is not a practical approach. Frauds also can be revealed by victim’s report or complaint. But there are usually no victims in the agricultural product wholesale frauds because they are committed by collusion of an auction company and an intermediary wholesaler. Nevertheless, it is required to monitor transaction records continuously and to make an effort to prevent any fraud, because the fraud not only disturbs the fair trade order of the market but also reduces the credibility of the market rapidly. Applying data mining to such an environment is very useful since it can discover unknown fraud patterns or features from a large volume of transaction data properly.
The objective of this research is to empirically investigate the factors necessary to detect fraud transactions in an agricultural product wholesale market by developing a data mining based fraud detection model. One of major frauds is the phantom transaction, which is a colluding transaction by the seller(auction company or forwarder) and buyer(intermediary wholesaler) to commit the fraud transaction. They pretend to fulfill the transaction by recording false data in the online transaction processing system without actually selling products, and the seller receives money from the buyer. This leads to the overstatement of sales performance and illegal money transfers, which reduces the credibility of market. This paper reviews the environment of wholesale market such as types of transactions, roles of participants of the market, and various types and characteristics of frauds, and introduces the whole process of developing the phantom transaction detection model. The process consists of the following 4 modules: (1) Data cleaning and standardization (2) Statistical data analysis such as distribution and correlation analysis, (3) Construction of classification model using decision-tree induction approach, (4) Verification of the model in terms of hit ratio. We collected real data from 6 associations of agricultural producers in metropolitan markets. Final model with a decision-tree induction approach revealed that monthly average trading price of item offered by forwarders is a key variable in detecting the phantom transaction. The verification procedure also confirmed the suitability of the results. However, even though the performance of the results of this research is satisfactory, sensitive issues are still remained for improving classification accuracy and conciseness of rules. One such issue is the robustness of data mining model. Data mining is very much data-oriented, so data mining models tend to be very sensitive to changes of data or situations. Thus, it is evident that this non-robustness of data mining model requires continuous remodeling as data or situation changes.
We hope that this paper suggest valuable guideline to organizations and companies that consider introducing or constructing a fraud detection model in the future.
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