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Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems,
Vol. 24, No. 2, June 2018
|Online news-based stock price forecasting considering homogeneity in the industrial sector
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 1 ~ 19
Keywords : Stock prediction, Text Mining, Machine Learning, Multiple Kernel Learning, Clustering
Since stock movements forecasting is an important issue both academically and practically, studies related to stock price prediction have been actively conducted. The stock price forecasting research is classified into structured data and unstructured data, and it is divided into technical analysis, fundamental analysis and media effect analysis in detail.
In the big data era, research on stock price prediction combining big data is actively underway. Based on a large number of data, stock prediction research mainly focuses on machine learning techniques.
Especially, research methods that combine the effects of media are attracting attention recently, among which researches that analyze online news and utilize online news to forecast stock prices are becoming main.
Previous studies predicting stock prices through online news are mostly sentiment analysis of news, making different corpus for each company, and making a dictionary that predicts stock prices by recording responses according to the past stock price. Therefore, existing studies have examined the impact of online news on individual companies. For example, stock movements of Samsung Electronics are predicted with only online news of Samsung Electronics. In addition, a method of considering influences among highly relevant companies has also been studied recently. For example, stock movements of Samsung Electronics are predicted with news of Samsung Electronics and a highly related company like LG Electronics.These previous studies examine the effects of news of industrial sector with homogeneity on the individual company. In the previous studies, homogeneous industries are classified according to the Global Industrial Classification Standard. In other words, the existing studies were analyzed under the assumption that industries divided into Global Industrial Classification Standard have homogeneity.
However, existing studies have limitations in that they do not take into account influential companies with high relevance or reflect the existence of heterogeneity within the same Global Industrial Classification Standard sectors. As a result of our examining the various sectors, it can be seen that there are sectors that show the industrial sectors are not a homogeneous group. To overcome these limitations of existing studies that do not reflect heterogeneity, our study suggests a methodology that reflects the heterogeneous effects of the industrial sector that affect the stock price by applying k-means clustering. Multiple Kernel Learning is mainly used to integrate data with various characteristics. Multiple Kernel Learning has several kernels, each of which receives and predicts different data. To incorporate effects of target firm and its relevant firms simultaneously, we used Multiple Kernel Learning. Each kernel was assigned to predict stock prices with variables of financial news of the industrial group divided by the target firm, K-means cluster analysis.
In order to prove that the suggested methodology is appropriate, experiments were conducted through three years of online news and stock prices.
The results of this study are as follows. (1) We confirmed that the information of the industrial sectors related to target company also contains meaningful information to predict stock movements of target company and confirmed that machine learning algorithm has better predictive power when considering the news of the relevant companies and target company’s news together. (2) It is important to predict stock movements with varying number of clusters according to the level of homogeneity in the industrial sector.
In other words, when stock prices are homogeneous in industrial sectors, it is important to use relational effect at the level of industry group without analyzing clusters or to use it in small number of clusters.
When the stock price is heterogeneous in industry group, it is important to cluster them into groups.
This study has a contribution that we testified firms classified as Global Industrial Classification Standard have heterogeneity and suggested it is necessary to define the relevance through machine learning and statistical analysis methodology rather than simply defining it in the Global Industrial Classification Standard. It has also contribution that we proved the efficiency of the prediction model reflecting heterogeneity.
|An Embedding /Extracting Method of Audio Watermark Information for High Quality Stereo Music
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 21 ~ 35
Keywords : Audio watermark, Stereo music, High quality, Quantization
Since the introduction of MP3 players, CD recordings have gradually been vanishing, and the music consuming environment of music users is shifting to mobile devices. The introduction of smart devices has increased the utilization of music through music playback, mass storage, and search functions that are integrated into smartphones and tablets. At the time of initial MP3 player supply, the bitrate of the compressed music contents generally was 128 Kbps. However, as increasing of the demand for high quality music, sound quality of 384 Kbps appeared. Recently, music content of FLAC (Free License Audio Codec) format using lossless compression method is becoming popular.
The download service of many music sites in Korea has classified by unlimited download with technical protection and limited download without technical protection. Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used as a technical protection measure for unlimited download, but it can only be used with authenticated devices that have DRM installed. Even if music purchased by the user, it cannot be used by other devices. On the contrary, in the case of music that is limited in quantity but not technically protected, there is no way to enforce anyone who distributes it, and in the case of high quality music such as FLAC, the loss is greater.
In this paper, the author proposes an audio watermarking technology for copyright protection of high quality stereo music. Two kinds of information, "Copyright" and "Copy_free", are generated by using the turbo code. The two watermarks are composed of 9 bytes (72 bits). If turbo code is applied for error correction, the amount of information to be inserted as 222 bits increases. The 222-bit watermark was expanded to 1024 bits to be robust against additional errors and finally used as a watermark to insert into stereo music. Turbo code is a way to recover raw data if the damaged amount is less than 15% even if part of the code is damaged due to attack of watermarked content. It can be extended to 1024 bits or it can find 222 bits from some damaged contents by increasing the probability, the watermark itself has made it more resistant to attack.
The proposed algorithm uses quantization in DCT so that watermark can be detected efficiently and SNR can be improved when stereo music is converted into mono. As a result, on average SNR exceeded 40dB, resulting in sound quality improvements of over 10dB over traditional quantization methods. This is a very significant result because it means relatively 10 times improvement in sound quality. In addition, the sample length required for extracting the watermark can be extracted sufficiently if the length is shorter than 1 second, and the watermark can be completely extracted from music samples of less than one second in all of the MP3 compression having a bit rate of 128 Kbps. The conventional quantization method can extract the watermark with a length of only 1/10 compared to the case where the sampling of the 10-second length largely fails to extract the watermark.
In this study, since the length of the watermark embedded into music is 72 bits, it provides sufficient capacity to embed necessary information for music. It is enough bits to identify the music distributed all over the world. 272 can identify 4 * 1021, so it can be used as an identifier and it can be used for copyright protection of high quality music service.
The proposed algorithm can be used not only for high quality audio but also for development of watermarking algorithm in multimedia such as UHD (Ultra High Definition) TV and high-resolution image.
In addition, with the development of digital devices, users are demanding high quality music in the music industry, and artificial intelligence assistant is coming along with high quality music and streaming service.
The results of this study can be used to protect the rights of copyright holders in these industries.
|The Effect of Mobile Advertising Platform through Big Data Analytics: Focusing on Advertising, and Media Characteristics
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 37 ~ 57
Keywords : Mobile Advertising, Advertising Effect, Cognitive Fit Theory, Bigdata, Advertisement Platform
With the spread of smart phones, interest in mobile media is on the increase as useful media recently.
Mobile media is assessed as having differentiated advantages from existing media in that not only can they provide consumers with desired information anytime and anywhere but also real-time interaction is possible in them. So far, studies on mobile advertising were mostly researches analyzing satisfaction with, and acceptance of, mobile advertising based on survey, researches focusing on the factors affecting acceptance of mobile advertising messages and researches verifying the effect of mobile advertising on brand recall, advertising attitude and brand attitude through experiments. Most of the domestic mobile advertising studies related to advertisement effect and advertisement attitude have been conducted through experiments and surveys. The advertising effectiveness measure of the mobile ad used the attitude of the advertisement, purchase intention, etc. To date, there have been few studies on the effects of mobile advertising on actual advertising data to prove the characteristics of the advertising platform and to prove the relationship between the factors influencing the advertising effect and the factors. In order to explore advertising effect of mobile advertising platform currently commercialized, this study defined advertising characteristics and media characteristics from the perspective of advertiser, advertising platform and publisher and analyzed the influence of each characteristic on advertising effect. As the advertisement characteristics, we classified advertisement format classified by bar type and floating type, and advertisement material classified by image and text. We defined advertisement characteristics of advertisement platform as Hedonic and Utilitarian media characteristics. As a dependent variable, we use CTR, which is the ratio of response (click) to ad exposure. The theoretical background and the analysis of the mobile advertising business, the hypothesis that the advertisement effect is different according to the advertisement specification, the advertisement material, In the ad standard, bar ads are classified as static framing, Floating ads can be categorized as dynamic framing, and the hypothetical definition of floating advertisements, which are high-profile dynamic framing ads, is highly responsive. In advertising, images with high salience are defined to have higher ad response than text. In the media characteristics classified as practical / hedonic type, it is defined that the hedonic type media has a more relaxed tendency than the practical media, and there is a high possibility of receiving various information because there is no clear target. In addition, image material and hedonic media are defined to be highly effective in the interaction between advertisement specification and advertisement material, advertisement specifications and media characteristics, and advertisement material and media characteristics. As the result of regression analysis on each characteristic, material standard, which is a characteristic of mobile advertisement, and media characteristics separated into 'Hedonic' and 'Utilitarian' had significant influence on advertisement effect and mutual interaction effect was also confirmed. In the mobile advertising standard, the advertising effect of the floating advertisement is higher than that of the bar advertisement, Floating ads were more effective than text ads for image ads. In addition, it was confirmed that the advertising effect is higher in the practical media than the hedonic media. The research was carried out with the big data collected from the mobile advertising platform, and it was possible to grasp the advertising effect of the measure index standard which is used in the practical work which could not be grasped in the previous research. In other words, the study was conducted using the CTR, which is a measure of the effectiveness of the advertisement used in the online advertisement and the mobile advertisement, which are not dependent on the attitude of the ad, the attitude of the brand, and the purchase intention. This study suggests that CTR is used as a dependent variable of advertising effect based on actual data of mobile ad platform accumulated over a long period of time. The results of this study is expected to contribute to establishment of optimum advertisement strategy such as creation of advertising materials and planning of media which suit advertised products at the time of mobile advertisement.
|Sentiment Analysis of Korean Reviews Using CNN: Focusing on Morpheme Embedding
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 59 ~ 83
Keywords : Sentiment Analysis, Morpheme Vector, Word Vector, Deep Learning, CNN, CBOW
With the increasing importance of sentiment analysis to grasp the needs of customers and the public, various types of deep learning models have been actively applied to English texts. In the sentiment analysis of English texts by deep learning, natural language sentences included in training and test datasets are usually converted into sequences of word vectors before being entered into the deep learning models. In this case, word vectors generally refer to vector representations of words obtained through splitting a sentence by space characters. There are several ways to derive word vectors, one of which is Word2Vec used for producing the 300 dimensional Google word vectors from about 100 billion words of Google News data. They have been widely used in the studies of sentiment analysis of reviews from various fields such as restaurants, movies, laptops, cameras, etc.
Unlike English, morpheme plays an essential role in sentiment analysis and sentence structure analysis in Korean, which is a typical agglutinative language with developed postpositions and endings. A morpheme can be defined as the smallest meaningful unit of a language, and a word consists of one or more morphemes. For example, for a word '예쁘고', the morphemes are '예쁘(= adjective)' and '고(=connective ending)'. Reflecting the significance of Korean morphemes, it seems reasonable to adopt the morphemes as a basic unit in Korean sentiment analysis. Therefore, in this study, we use 'morpheme vector' as an input to a deep learning model rather than 'word vector' which is mainly used in English text. The morpheme vector refers to a vector representation for the morpheme and can be derived by applying an existent word vector derivation mechanism to the sentences divided into constituent morphemes.
By the way, here come some questions as follows. What is the desirable range of POS(Part-Of-Speech) tags when deriving morpheme vectors for improving the classification accuracy of a deep learning model? Is it proper to apply a typical word vector model which primarily relies on the form of words to Korean with a high homonym ratio? Will the text preprocessing such as correcting spelling or spacing errors affect the classification accuracy, especially when drawing morpheme vectors from Korean product reviews with a lot of grammatical mistakes and variations? We seek to find empirical answers to these fundamental issues, which may be encountered first when applying various deep learning models to Korean texts. As a starting point, we summarized these issues as three central research questions as follows. First, which is better effective, to use morpheme vectors from grammatically correct texts of other domain than the analysis target, or to use morpheme vectors from considerably ungrammatical texts of the same domain, as the initial input of a deep learning model? Second, what is an appropriate morpheme vector derivation method for Korean regarding the range of POS tags, homonym, text preprocessing, minimum frequency? Third, can we get a satisfactory level of classification accuracy when applying deep learning to Korean sentiment analysis? As an approach to these research questions, we generate various types of morpheme vectors reflecting the research questions and then compare the classification accuracy through a non-static CNN(Convolutional Neural Network) model taking in the morpheme vectors. As for training and test datasets, Naver Shopping's 17,260 cosmetics product reviews are used. To derive morpheme vectors, we use data from the same domain as the target one and data from other domain; Naver shopping's about 2 million cosmetics product reviews and 520,000 Naver News data arguably corresponding to Google’s News data.
The six primary sets of morpheme vectors constructed in this study differ in terms of the following three criteria. First, they come from two types of data source; Naver news of high grammatical correctness and Naver shopping’s cosmetics product reviews of low grammatical correctness. Second, they are distinguished in the degree of data preprocessing, namely, only splitting sentences or up to additional spelling and spacing corrections after sentence separation. Third, they vary concerning the form of input fed into a word vector model; whether the morphemes themselves are entered into a word vector model or with their POS tags attached. The morpheme vectors further vary depending on the consideration range of POS tags, the minimum frequency of morphemes included, and the random initialization range. All morpheme vectors are derived through CBOW(Continuous Bag-Of-Words) model with the context window 5 and the vector dimension 300.
It seems that utilizing the same domain text even with a lower degree of grammatical correctness, performing spelling and spacing corrections as well as sentence splitting, and incorporating morphemes of any POS tags including incomprehensible category lead to the better classification accuracy. The POS tag attachment, which is devised for the high proportion of homonyms in Korean, and the minimum frequency standard for the morpheme to be included seem not to have any definite influence on the classification accuracy.
|A Hybrid Recommender System based on Collaborative Filtering with Selective Use of Overall and Multicriteria Ratings
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 85 ~ 109
Keywords : Recommender system, Hybrid recommender system, Multicriteria ratings, Collective filtering, Selective use
Recommender system recommends the items expected to be purchased by a customer in the future according to his or her previous purchase behaviors. It has been served as a tool for realizing one-to-one personalization for an e-commerce service company. Traditional recommender systems, especially the recommender systems based on collaborative filtering (CF), which is the most popular recommendation algorithm in both academy and industry, are designed to generate the items list for recommendation by using ‘overall rating’ – a single criterion. However, it has critical limitations in understanding the customers’ preferences in detail. Recently, to mitigate these limitations, some leading e-commerce companies have begun to get feedback from their customers in a form of ‘multicritera ratings’. Multicriteria ratings enable the companies to understand their customers’ preferences from the multidimensional viewpoints. Moreover, it is easy to handle and analyze the multidimensional ratings because they are quantitative. But, the recommendation using multicritera ratings also has limitation that it may omit detail information on a user’s preference because it only considers three-to-five predetermined criteria in most cases.
Under this background, this study proposes a novel hybrid recommendation system, which selectively uses the results from ‘traditional CF’ and ‘CF using multicriteria ratings’. Our proposed system is based on the premise that some people have holistic preference scheme, whereas others have composite preference scheme. Thus, our system is designed to use traditional CF using overall rating for the users with holistic preference, and to use CF using multicriteria ratings for the users with composite preference.
To validate the usefulness of the proposed system, we applied it to a real-world dataset regarding the recommendation for POI (point-of-interests). Providing personalized POI recommendation is getting more attentions as the popularity of the location-based services such as Yelp and Foursquare increases. The dataset was collected from university students via a Web-based online survey system. Using the survey system, we collected the overall ratings as well as the ratings for each criterion for 48 POIs that are located near K university in Seoul, South Korea. The criteria include ‘food or taste’, ‘price’ and ‘service or mood’.
As a result, we obtain 2,878 valid ratings from 112 users. Among 48 items, 38 items (80%) are used as training dataset, and the remaining 10 items (20%) are used as validation dataset. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed system (i.e. hybrid selective model), we compared its performance to the performances of two comparison models – the traditional CF and the CF with multicriteria ratings. The performances of recommender systems were evaluated by using two metrics - average MAE(mean absolute error) and precision-in-top-N. Precision-in-top-N represents the percentage of truly high overall ratings among those that the model predicted would be the N most relevant items for each user. The experimental system was developed using Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA).
The experimental results showed that our proposed system (avg. MAE = 0.584) outperformed traditional CF (avg. MAE = 0.591) as well as multicriteria CF (avg. AVE = 0.608). We also found that multicriteria CF showed worse performance compared to traditional CF in our data set, which is contradictory to the results in the most previous studies. This result supports the premise of our study that people have two different types of preference schemes – holistic and composite. Besides MAE, the proposed system outperformed all the comparison models in precision-in-top-3, precision-in-top-5, and precision-in-top-7. The results from the paired samples t-test presented that our proposed system outperformed traditional CF with 10% statistical significance level, and multicriteria CF with 1% statistical significance level from the perspective of average MAE. The proposed system sheds light on how to understand and utilize user’s preference schemes in recommender systems domain.
|Development and application of prediction model of hyperlipidemia using SVM and meta-learning algorithm
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 111 ~ 124
Keywords : SVM, meta-learning, Metabolic syndrome, hyperlipidemia, Korea Health Panel data
This study aims to develop a classification model for predicting the occurrence of hyperlipidemia, one of the chronic diseases. Prior studies applying data mining techniques for predicting disease can be classified into a model design study for predicting cardiovascular disease and a study comparing disease prediction research results. In the case of foreign literatures, studies predicting cardiovascular disease were predominant in predicting disease using data mining techniques. Although domestic studies were not much different from those of foreign countries, studies focusing on hypertension and diabetes were mainly conducted. Since hypertension and diabetes as well as chronic diseases, hyperlipidemia, are also of high importance, this study selected hyperlipidemia as the disease to be analyzed. We also developed a model for predicting hyperlipidemia using SVM and meta learning algorithms, which are already known to have excellent predictive power.
In order to achieve the purpose of this study, we used data set from Korea Health Panel 2012. The Korean Health Panel produces basic data on the level of health expenditure, health level and health behavior, and has conducted an annual survey since 2008. In this study, 1,088 patients with hyperlipidemia were randomly selected from the hospitalized, outpatient, emergency, and chronic disease data of the Korean Health Panel in 2012, and 1,088 nonpatients were also randomly extracted. A total of 2,176 people were selected for the study.
Three methods were used to select input variables for predicting hyperlipidemia. First, stepwise method was performed using logistic regression. Among the 17 variables, the categorical variables(except for length of smoking) are expressed as dummy variables, which are assumed to be separate variables on the basis of the reference group, and these variables were analyzed. Six variables (age, BMI, education level, marital status, smoking status, gender) excluding income level and smoking period were selected based on significance level 0.1. Second, C4.5 as a decision tree algorithm is used. The significant input variables were age, smoking status, and education level. Finally, C4.5 as a decision tree algorithm is used.
In SVM, the input variables selected by genetic algorithms consisted of 6 variables such as age, marital status, education level, economic activity, smoking period, and physical activity status, and the input variables selected by genetic algorithms in artificial neural network consist of 3 variables such as age, marital status, and education level.
Based on the selected parameters, we compared SVM, meta learning algorithm and other prediction models for hyperlipidemia patients, and compared the classification performances using TP rate and precision.
The main results of the analysis are as follows. First, the accuracy of the SVM was 88.4% and the accuracy of the artificial neural network was 86.7%. Second, the accuracy of classification models using the selected input variables through stepwise method was slightly higher than that of classification models using the whole variables. Third, the precision of artificial neural network was higher than that of SVM when only three variables as input variables were selected by decision trees. As a result of classification models based on the input variables selected through the genetic algorithm, classification accuracy of SVM was 88.5% and that of artificial neural network was 87.9%. Finally, this study indicated that stacking as the meta learning algorithm proposed in this study, has the best performance when it uses the predicted outputs of SVM and MLP as input variables of SVM, which is a meta classifier.
The purpose of this study was to predict hyperlipidemia, one of the representative chronic diseases.
To do this, we used SVM and meta-learning algorithms, which is known to have high accuracy. As a result, the accuracy of classification of hyperlipidemia in the stacking as a meta learner was higher than other meta-learning algorithms. However, the predictive performance of the meta-learning algorithm proposed in this study is the same as that of SVM with the best performance (88.6%) among the single models.
The limitations of this study are as follows. First, various variable selection methods were tried, but most variables used in the study were categorical dummy variables. In the case with a large number of categorical variables, the results may be different if continuous variables are used because the model can be better suited to categorical variables such as decision trees than general models such as neural networks.
Despite these limitations, this study has significance in predicting hyperlipidemia with hybrid models such as met learning algorithms which have not been studied previously. It can be said that the result of improving the model accuracy by applying various variable selection techniques is meaningful. In addition, it is expected that our proposed model will be effective for the prevention and management of hyperlipidemia.
|Automatic Quality Evaluation with Completeness and Succinctness for Text Summarization
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 125 ~ 148
Keywords : Text Summarization Evaluation, Text Summarization, Text Mining, Topic Modeling
Recently, as the demand for big data analysis increases, cases of analyzing unstructured data and using the results are also increasing. Among the various types of unstructured data, text is used as a means of communicating information in almost all fields. In addition, many analysts are interested in the amount of data is very large and relatively easy to collect compared to other unstructured and structured data.
Among the various text analysis applications, document classification which classifies documents into predetermined categories, topic modeling which extracts major topics from a large number of documents, sentimental analysis or opinion mining that identifies emotions or opinions contained in texts, and Text Summarization which summarize the main contents from one document or several documents have been actively studied.
On the other hand, as a representative attempt to overcome these limitations, a method has been recently devised to reduce the size of the full text and to measure the similarity of the reduced full text and the automatic summary. In this method, the more frequent term in the full text appears in the summary, the better the quality of the summary. However, since summarization essentially means minimizing a lot of content while minimizing content omissions, it is unreasonable to say that a "good summary" based on only frequency always means a "good summary" in its essential meaning. In order to overcome the limitations of this previous study of summarization evaluation, this study proposes an automatic quality evaluation for text summarization method based on the essential meaning of summarization. Specifically, the concept of succinctness is defined as an element indicating how few duplicated contents among the sentences of the summary, and completeness is defined as an element that indicating how few of the contents are not included in the summary.
In this paper, we propose a method for automatic quality evaluation of text summarization based on the concepts of succinctness and completeness. In order to evaluate the practical applicability of the proposed methodology, 29,671 sentences were extracted from TripAdvisor 's hotel reviews, summarized the reviews by each hotel and presented the results of the experiments conducted on evaluation of the quality of summaries in accordance to the proposed methodology. It also provides a way to integrate the completeness and succinctness in the trade-off relationship into the F-Score, and propose a method to perform the optimal summarization by changing the threshold of the sentence similarity.
|A Study on the Revitalization of Tourism Industry through Big Data Analysis
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 149 ~ 169
Keywords : Big Data, Artificial Neural Network, Decision Tree, Logistic Regression Analysis, R Programming
Korea is currently accumulating a large amount of data in public institutions based on the public data open policy and the "Government 3.0". Especially, a lot of data is accumulated in the tourism field.
However, the academic discussions utilizing the tourism data are still limited. Moreover, the openness of the data of restaurants, hotels, and online tourism information, and how to use SNS Big Data in tourism are still limited. Therefore, utilization through tourism big data analysis is still low.
In this paper, we tried to analyze influencing factors on foreign tourists' satisfaction in Korea through numerical data using data mining technique and R programming technique. In this study, we tried to find ways to revitalize the tourism industry by analyzing about 36,000 big data of the "Survey on the actual situation of foreign tourists from 2013 to 2015" surveyed by the Korea Culture & Tourism Research Institute. To do this, we analyzed the factors that have high influence on the 'Satisfaction', 'Revisit intention', and 'Recommendation' variables of foreign tourists. Furthermore, we analyzed the practical influences of the variables that are mentioned above.
As a procedure of this study, we first integrated survey data of foreign tourists conducted by Korea Culture & Tourism Research Institute, which is stored in the tourist information system from 2013 to 2015, and eliminate unnecessary variables that are inconsistent with the research purpose among the integrated data. Some variables were modified to improve the accuracy of the analysis. And we analyzed the factors affecting the dependent variables by using data-mining methods: decision tree(C5.0, CART, CHAID, QUEST), artificial neural network, and logistic regression analysis of SPSS IBM Modeler 16.0. The seven variables that have the greatest effect on each dependent variable were derived.
As a result of data analysis, it was found that seven major variables influencing ‘overall satisfaction’ were sightseeing spot attraction, food satisfaction, accommodation satisfaction, traffic satisfaction, guide service satisfaction, number of visiting places, and country. Variables that had a great influence appeared food satisfaction and sightseeing spot attraction. The seven variables that had the greatest influence on 'revisit intention' were the country, travel motivation, activity, food satisfaction, best activity, guide service satisfaction and sightseeing spot attraction. The most influential variables were food satisfaction and travel motivation for Korean style. Lastly, the seven variables that have the greatest influence on the 'recommendation intention' were the country, sightseeing spot attraction, number of visiting places, food satisfaction, activity, tour guide service satisfaction and cost. And then the variables that had the greatest influence were the country, sightseeing spot attraction, and food satisfaction.
In addition, in order to grasp the influence of each independent variables more deeply, we used R programming to identify the influence of independent variables. As a result, it was found that the food satisfaction and sightseeing spot attraction were higher than other variables in overall satisfaction and had a greater effect than other influential variables. Revisit intention had a higher β value in the travel motive as the purpose of Korean Wave than other variables. It will be necessary to have a policy that will lead to a substantial revisit of tourists by enhancing tourist attractions for the purpose of Korean Wave. Lastly, the recommendation had the same result of satisfaction as the sightseeing spot attraction and food satisfaction have higher β value than other variables.
From this analysis, we found that ‘food satisfaction’ and ‘sightseeing spot attraction’ variables were the common factors to influence three dependent variables that are mentioned above(‘Overall satisfaction’, ‘Revisit intention’ and ‘Recommendation’), and that those factors affected the satisfaction of travel in Korea significantly. The purpose of this study is to examine how to activate foreign tourists in Korea through big data analysis. It is expected to be used as basic data for analyzing tourism data and establishing effective tourism policy. It is expected to be used as a material to establish an activation plan that can contribute to tourism development in Korea in the future.
|Change Acceptable In-Depth Searching in LOD Cloud for Efficient Knowledge Expansion
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 171 ~ 193
Keywords : Semantic Web, In-depth searching, Ontology, Linked Open Data, Link policy
LOD(Linked Open Data) cloud is a practical implementation of semantic web. We suggested a new method that provides identity links conveniently in LOD cloud. It also allows changes in LOD to be reflected to searching results without any omissions. LOD provides detail descriptions of entities to public in RDF triple form. RDF triple is composed of subject, predicates, and objects and presents detail description for an entity. Links in LOD cloud, named identity links, are realized by asserting entities of different RDF triples to be identical. Currently, the identity link is provided with creating a link triple explicitly in which associates its subject and object with source and target entities. Link triples are appended to LOD. With identity links, a knowledge achieves from an LOD can be expanded with different knowledge from different LODs. The goal of LOD cloud is providing opportunity of knowledge expansion to users.
Appending link triples to LOD, however, has serious difficulties in discovering identity links between entities one by one notwithstanding the enormous scale of LOD. Newly added entities cannot be reflected to searching results until identity links heading for them are serialized and published to LOD cloud. Instead of creating enormous identity links, we propose LOD to prepare its own link policy. The link policy specifies a set of target LODs to link and constraints necessary to discover identity links to entities on target LODs. On searching, it becomes possible to access newly added entities and reflect them to searching results without any omissions by referencing the link policies. Link policy specifies a set of predicate pairs for discovering identity between associated entities in source and target LODs. For the link policy specification, we have suggested a set of vocabularies that conform to RDFS and OWL. Identity between entities is evaluated in accordance with a similarity of the source and the target entities’ objects which have been associated with the predicates’ pair in the link policy. We implemented a system “Change Acceptable In-Depth Searching System(CAIDS)”. With CAIDS, user’s searching request starts from depth_0 LOD, i.e. surface searching. Referencing the link policies of LODs, CAIDS proceeds in-depth searching, next LODs of next depths. To supplement identity links derived from the link policies, CAIDS uses explicit link triples as well. Following the identity links, CAIDS’s in-depth searching progresses. Content of an entity obtained from depth_0 LOD expands with the contents of entities of other LODs which have been discovered to be identical to depth_0 LOD entity. Expanding content of depth_0 LOD entity without user’s cognition of such other LODs is the implementation of knowledge expansion. It is the goal of LOD cloud. The more identity links in LOD cloud, the wider content expansions in LOD cloud. We have suggested a new way to create identity links abundantly and supply them to LOD cloud.
Experiments on CAIDS performed against DBpedia LODs of Korea, France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. They present that CAIDS provides appropriate expansion ratio and inclusion ratio as long as degree of similarity between source and target objects is 0.8 ~ 0.9. Expansion ratio, for each depth, depicts the ratio of the entities discovered at the depth to the entities of depth_0 LOD. For each depth, inclusion ratio illustrates the ratio of the entities discovered only with explicit links to the entities discovered only with link policies. In cases of similarity degrees with under 0.8, expansion becomes excessive and thus contents become distorted. Similarity degree of 0.8 ~ 0.9 provides appropriate amount of RDF triples searched as well.
Experiments have evaluated confidence degree of contents which have been expanded in accordance with in-depth searching. Confidence degree of content is directly coupled with identity ratio of an entity, which means the degree of identity to the entity of depth_0 LOD. Identity ratio of an entity is obtained by multiplying source LOD’s confidence and source entity’s identity ratio. By tracing the identity links in advance, LOD’s confidence is evaluated in accordance with the amount of identity links incoming to the entities in the LOD. While evaluating the identity ratio, concept of identity agreement, which means that multiple identity links head to a common entity, has been considered. With the identity agreement concept, experimental results present that identity ratio decreases as depth deepens, but rebounds as the depth deepens more. For each entity, as the number of identity links increases, identity ratio rebounds early and reaches at 1 finally. We found out that more than 8 identity links for each entity would lead users to give their confidence to the contents expanded. Link policy based in-depth searching method, we proposed, is expected to contribute to abundant identity links provisions to LOD cloud.
|Empirical Analysis on Bitcoin Price Change by Consumer, Industry and Macro-Economy Variables
Vol. 24, No. 2, Page: 195 ~ 220
Keywords : Time-series Regression Analysis, Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, Web Search Traffic, Block Chain, Bitcoin Price
In this study, we conducted an empirical analysis of the factors that affect the change of Bitcoin Closing Price. Previous studies have focused on the security of the block chain system, the economic ripple effects caused by the cryptocurrency, legal implications and the acceptance to consumer about cryptocurrency. In various area, cryptocurrency was studied and many researcher and people including government, regardless of country, try to utilize cryptocurrency and applicate to its technology. Despite of rapid and dramatic change of cryptocurrencies’ price and growth of its effects, empirical study of the factors affecting the price change of cryptocurrency was lack. There were only a few limited studies, business reports and short working paper. Therefore, it is necessary to determine what factors effect on the change of closing Bitcoin price. For analysis, hypotheses were constructed from three dimensions of consumer, industry, and macroeconomics for analysis, and time series data were collected for variables of each dimension. Consumer variables consist of search traffic of Bitcoin, search traffic of bitcoin ban, search traffic of ransomware and search traffic of war. Industry variables were composed GPU vendors’ stock price and memory vendors’ stock price. Macro-economy variables were contemplated such as U.S. dollar index futures, FOMC policy interest rates, WTI crude oil price. Using above variables, we did times series regression analysis to find relationship between those variables and change of Bitcoin Closing Price. Before the regression analysis to confirm the relationship between change of Bitcoin Closing Price and the other variables, we performed the Unit-root test to verifying the stationary of time series data to avoid spurious regression. Then, using a stationary data, we did the regression analysis. As a result of the analysis, we found that the change of Bitcoin Closing Price has negative effects with search traffic of ‘Bitcoin Ban’ and US dollar index futures, while change of GPU vendors’ stock price and change of WTI crude oil price showed positive effects. In case of ‘Bitcoin Ban’, it is directly determining the maintenance or abolition of Bitcoin trade, that’s why consumer reacted sensitively and effected on change of Bitcoin Closing Price.
GPU is raw material of Bitcoin mining. Generally, increasing of companies’ stock price means the growth of the sales of those companies’ products and services. GPU’s demands increases are indirectly reflected to the GPU vendors’ stock price. Making an interpretation, a rise in prices of GPU has put a crimp on the mining of Bitcoin. Consequently, GPU vendors’ stock price effects on change of Bitcoin Closing Price.
And we confirmed U.S. dollar index futures moved in the opposite direction with change of Bitcoin Closing Price. It moved like Gold. Gold was considered as a safe asset to consumers and it means consumer think that Bitcoin is a safe asset. On the other hand, WTI oil price went Bitcoin Closing Price’s way. It implies that Bitcoin are regarded to investment asset like raw materials market’s product. The variables that were not significant in the analysis were search traffic of bitcoin, search traffic of ransomware, search traffic of war, memory vendor’s stock price, FOMC policy interest rates. In search traffic of bitcoin, we judged that interest in Bitcoin did not lead to purchase of Bitcoin. It means search traffic of Bitcoin didn’t reflect all of Bitcoin’s demand. So, it implies there are some factors that regulate and mediate the Bitcoin purchase. In search traffic of ransomware, it is hard to say concern of ransomware determined the whole Bitcoin demand. Because only a few people damaged by ransomware and the percentage of hackers requiring Bitcoins was low. Also, its information security problem is events not continuous issues. Search traffic of war was not significant. Like stock market, generally it has negative in relation to war, but exceptional case like Gulf war, it moves stakeholders’ profits and environment. We think that this is the same case. In memory vendor stock price, this is because memory vendors' flagship products were not VRAM which is essential for Bitcoin supply. In FOMC policy interest rates, when the interest rate is low, the surplus capital is invested in securities such as stocks. But Bitcoin’ price fluctuation was large so it is not recognized as an attractive commodity to the consumers. In addition, unlike the stock market, Bitcoin doesn’t have any safety policy such as Circuit breakers and Sidecar. Through this study, we verified what factors effect on change of Bitcoin Closing Price, and interpreted why such change happened. In addition, establishing the characteristics of Bitcoin as a safe asset and investment asset, we provide a guide how consumer, financial institution and government organization approach to the cryptocurrency. Moreover, corroborating the factors affecting change of Bitcoin Closing Price, researcher will get some clue and qualification which factors have to be considered in hereafter cryptocurrency study.