Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems,
Vol. 27, No. 3, September 2021
The Effect of Changes in Airbnb Host’s Marketing Strategy on Listing Performance in the COVID-19 Pandemic
So Yeong Kim, Ji Hwan Sim, and Yeo Jin Chung
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 1 ~ 27
Keywords : COVID-19, Sharing economy, Listing description, Text mining, Aspect extraction
The entire tourism industry is being hit hard by the COVID-19 as a global pandemic. Accommodation sharing services such as Airbnb, which have recently expanded due to the spread of the sharing economy, are particularly affected by the pandemic because transactions are made based on trust and communication between consumer and supplier. As the pandemic situation changes individuals' perceptions and behavior of travel, strategies for the recovery of the tourism industry have been discussed. However, since most studies present macro strategies in terms of traditional lodging providers and the government, there is a significant lack of discussion on differentiated pandemic response strategies considering the peculiarity of the sharing economy centered on peer-to-peer transactions. This study discusses the marketing strategy for individual hosts of Airbnb during COVID-19. We empirically analyze the effect of changes in listing descriptions posted by the Airbnb hosts on listing performance after COVID-19 was outbroken. We extract nine aspects described in the listing descriptions using the Attention-Based Aspect Extraction model, which is a deep learning-based aspect extraction method. We model the effect of aspect changes on listing performance after the COVID-19 by observing the frequency of each aspect appeared in the text. In addition, we compare those effects across the types of Airbnb listing. Through this, this study presents an idea for a pandemic crisis response strategy that individual service providers of accommodation sharing services can take depending on the listing type.
A Study on Enhancing Personalization Recommendation Service Performance with CNN-based Review Helpfulness Score Prediction
Qinglong Li, Byunghyun Lee, Xinzhe Li, and Jae Kyeong Kim
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 29 ~ 56
Keywords : Personalized Recommendation Service, Review Helpfulness, CF, Deep Learning, CNN
Recently, various types of products have been launched with the rapid growth of the e-commerce market. As a result, many users face information overload problems, which is time-consuming in the purchasing decision-making process. Therefore, the importance of a personalized recommendation service that can provide customized products and services to users is emerging. For example, global companies such as Netflix, Amazon, and Google have introduced personalized recommendation services to support users' purchasing decisions. Accordingly, the user's information search cost can reduce which can positively affect the company's sales increase. The existing personalized recommendation service research applied Collaborative Filtering (CF) technique predicts user preference mainly use quantified information. However, the recommendation performance may have decreased if only use quantitative information. To improve the problems of such existing studies, many studies using reviews to enhance recommendation performance. However, reviews contain factors that hinder purchasing decisions, such as advertising content, false comments, meaningless or irrelevant content. When providing recommendation service uses a review that includes these factors can lead to decrease recommendation performance. Therefore, we proposed a novel recommendation methodology through CNN-based review usefulness score prediction to improve these problems. The results show that the proposed methodology has better prediction performance than the recommendation method considering all existing preference ratings. In addition, the results suggest that can enhance the performance of traditional CF when the information on review usefulness reflects in the personalized recommendation service.
A Study of Anomaly Detection for ICT Infrastructure using Conditional Multimodal Autoencoder
Byungjin Shin, Jonghoon Lee, Sangjin Han, and Choong-Shik Park
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 57 ~ 73
Keywords : Anomaly detection, Multimodal, Artificial intelligence, Autoencoder, System monitoring
Maintenance and prevention of failure through anomaly detection of ICT infrastructure is becoming important. System monitoring data is multidimensional time series data. When we deal with multidimensional time series data, we have difficulty in considering both characteristics of multidimensional data and characteristics of time series data.
When dealing with multidimensional data, correlation between variables should be considered. Existing methods such as probability and linear base, distance base, etc. are degraded due to limitations called the curse of dimensions. In addition, time series data is preprocessed by applying sliding window technique and time series decomposition for self-correlation analysis. These techniques are the cause of increasing the dimension of data, so it is necessary to supplement them.
The anomaly detection field is an old research field, and statistical methods and regression analysis were used in the early days. Currently, there are active studies to apply machine learning and artificial neural network technology to this field.
Statistically based methods are difficult to apply when data is non-homogeneous, and do not detect local outliers well. The regression analysis method compares the predictive value and the actual value after learning the regression formula based on the parametric statistics and it detects abnormality. Anomaly detection using regression analysis has the disadvantage that the performance is lowered when the model is not solid and the noise or outliers of the data are included. There is a restriction that learning data with noise or outliers should be used.
The autoencoder using artificial neural networks is learned to output as similar as possible to input data. It has many advantages compared to existing probability and linear model, cluster analysis, and map learning. It can be applied to data that does not satisfy probability distribution or linear assumption. In addition, it is possible to learn non-mapping without label data for teaching. However, there is a limitation of local outlier identification of multidimensional data in anomaly detection, and there is a problem that the dimension of data is greatly increased due to the characteristics of time series data.
In this study, we propose a CMAE (Conditional Multimodal Autoencoder) that enhances the performance of anomaly detection by considering local outliers and time series characteristics. First, we applied Multimodal Autoencoder (MAE) to improve the limitations of local outlier identification of multidimensional data. Multimodals are commonly used to learn different types of inputs, such as voice and image. The different modal shares the bottleneck effect of Autoencoder and it learns correlation. In addition, CAE(Conditional Autoencoder) was used to learn the characteristics of time series data effectively without increasing the dimension of data. In general, conditional input mainly uses category variables, but in this study, time was used as a condition to learn periodicity.
The CMAE model proposed in this paper was verified by comparing with the Unimodal Autoencoder (UAE) and Multi-modal Autoencoder (MAE). The restoration performance of Autoencoder for 41 variables was confirmed in the proposed model and the comparison model. The restoration performance is different by variables, and the restoration is normally well operated because the loss value is small for Memory, Disk, and Network modals in all three Autoencoder models. The process modal did not show a significant difference in all three models, and the CPU modal showed excellent performance in CMAE. ROC curve was prepared for the evaluation of anomaly detection performance in the proposed model and the comparison model, and AUC, accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score were compared. In all indicators, the performance was shown in the order of CMAE, MAE, and AE. Especially, the reproduction rate was 0.9828 for CMAE, which can be confirmed to detect almost most of the abnormalities. The accuracy of the model was also improved and 87.12%, and the F1-score was 0.8883, which is considered to be suitable for anomaly detection.
In practical aspect, the proposed model has an additional advantage in addition to performance improvement. The use of techniques such as time series decomposition and sliding windows has the disadvantage of managing unnecessary procedures; and their dimensional increase can cause a decrease in the computational speed in inference.The proposed model has characteristics that are easy to apply to practical tasks such as inference speed and model management.
Analyzing the Discriminative Characteristic of Cover Letters using Text Mining focused on Air Force Applicants
Hyeok Kwon, and Wooju Kim
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 75 ~ 94
Keywords : Air Force Non-Commissioned Officer, Cover Letter, Text Mining, LDA, L-LDA
The low birth rate and shortened military service period are causing concerns about selecting excellent military officers. The Republic of Korea entered a low birth rate society in 1984 and an aged society in 2018 respectively, and is expected to be in a super-aged society in 2025. In addition, the troop-oriented military is changed as a state-of-the-art weapons-oriented military, and the reduction of the military service period was implemented in 2018 to ease the burden of military service for young people and play a role in the society early. Some observe that the application rate for military officers is falling due to a decrease of manpower resources and a preference for shortened mandatory military service over military officers. This requires further consideration of the policy of securing excellent military officers. Most of the related studies have used social scientists' methodologies, but this study applies the methodology of text mining suitable for large-scale documents analysis. This study extracts words of discriminative characteristics from the Republic of Korea Air Force Non-Commissioned Officer Applicant cover letters and analyzes the polarity of pass and fail. It consists of three steps in total. First, the application is divided into general and technical fields, and the words characterized in the cover letter are ordered according to the difference in the frequency ratio of each field. The greater the difference in the proportion of each application field, the field character is defined as 'more discriminative'. Based on this, we extract the top 50 words representing discriminative characteristics in general fields and the top 50 words representing discriminative characteristics in technology fields. Second, the number of appropriate topics in the overall cover letter is calculated through the LDA. It uses perplexity score and coherence score. Based on the appropriate number of topics, we then use LDA to generate topic and probability, and estimate which topic words of discriminative characteristic belong to. Subsequently, the keyword indicators of questions used to set the labeling candidate index, and the most appropriate index indicator is set as the label for the topic when considering the topic-specific word distribution. Third, using L-LDA, which sets the cover letter and label as pass and fail, we generate topics and probabilities for each field of pass and fail labels. Furthermore, we extract only words of discriminative characteristics that give labeled topics among generated topics and probabilities by pass and fail labels. Next, we extract the difference between the probability on the pass label and the probability on the fail label by word of the labeled discriminative characteristic. A positive figure can be seen as having the polarity of pass, and a negative figure can be seen as having the polarity of fail. This study is the first research to reflect the characteristics of cover letters of Republic of Korea Air Force non-commissioned officer applicants, not in the private sector. Moreover, these methodologies can apply text mining techniques for multiple documents, rather survey or interview methods, to reduce analysis time and increase reliability for the entire population. For this reason, the methodology proposed in the study is also applicable to other forms of multiple documents in the field of military personnel. This study shows that L-LDA is more suitable than LDA to extract discriminative characteristics of Republic of Korea Air Force Noncommissioned cover letters. Furthermore, this study proposes a methodology that uses a combination of LDA and L-LDA. Therefore, through the analysis of the results of the acquisition of non-commissioned Republic of Korea Air Force officers, we would like to provide information available for acquisition and promotional policies and propose a methodology available for research in the field of military manpower acquisition.
Major Class Recommendation System based on Deep learning using Network Analysis
Jae Kyu Lee, Heesung Park, and Wooju Kim
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 95 ~ 112
Keywords : Big data in Education, Deep learning, Network analysis, Node embedding, Recommendation system
In university education, the choice of major class plays an important role in students' careers. However, in line with the changes in the industry, the fields of major subjects by department are diversifying and increasing in number in university education. As a result, students have difficulty to choose and take classes according to their career paths. In general, students choose classes based on experiences such as choices of peers or advice from seniors. This has the advantage of being able to take into account the general situation, but it does not reflect individual tendencies and considerations of existing courses, and has a problem that leads to information inequality that is shared only among specific students. In addition, as non-face-to-face classes have recently been conducted and exchanges between students have decreased, even experience-based decisions have not been made as well. Therefore, this study proposes a recommendation system model that can recommend college major classes suitable for individual characteristics based on data rather than experience. The recommendation system recommends information and content (music, movies, books, images, etc.) that a specific user may be interested in. It is already widely used in services where it is important to consider individual tendencies such as YouTube and Facebook, and you can experience it familiarly in providing personalized services in content services such as over-the-top media services (OTT). Classes are also a kind of content consumption in terms of selecting classes suitable for individuals from a set content list. However, unlike other content consumption, it is characterized by a large influence of selection results. For example, in the case of music and movies, it is usually consumed once and the time required to consume content is short. Therefore, the importance of each item is relatively low, and there is no deep concern in selecting. Major classes usually have a long consumption time because they have to be taken for one semester, and each item has a high importance and requires greater caution in choice because it affects many things such as career and graduation requirements depending on the composition of the selected classes. Depending on the unique characteristics of these major classes, the recommendation system in the education field supports decision-making that reflects individual characteristics that are meaningful and cannot be reflected in experience-based decision-making, even though it has a relatively small number of item ranges. This study aims to realize personalized education and enhance students' educational satisfaction by presenting a recommendation model for university major class. In the model study, class history data of undergraduate students at University from 2015 to 2017 were used, and students and their major names were used as metadata. The class history data is implicit feedback data that only indicates whether content is consumed, not reflecting preferences for classes. Therefore, when we derive embedding vectors that characterize students and classes, their expressive power is low. With these issues in mind, this study proposes a Net-NeuMF model that generates vectors of students, classes through network analysis and utilizes them as input values of the model. The model was based on the structure of NeuMF using one-hot vectors, a representative model using data with implicit feedback. The input vectors of the model are generated to represent the characteristic of students and classes through network analysis. To generate a vector representing a student, each student is set to a node and the edge is designed to connect with a weight if the two students take the same class. Similarly, to generate a vector representing the class, each class was set as a node, and the edge connected if any students had taken the classes in common. Thus, we utilize Node2Vec, a representation learning methodology that quantifies the characteristics of each node. For the evaluation of the model, we used four indicators that are mainly utilized by recommendation systems, and experiments were conducted on three different dimensions to analyze the impact of embedding dimensions on the model. The results show better performance on evaluation metrics regardless of dimension than when using one-hot vectors in existing NeuMF structures. Thus, this work contributes to a network of students (users) and classes (items) to increase expressiveness over existing one-hot embeddings, to match the characteristics of each structure that constitutes the model, and to show better performance on various kinds of evaluation metrics compared to existing methodologies.
Impact of Impulsiveness on Mobile Banking Usage: Moderating Effect of Credit Card Use and Mediating Effect of SNS Addiction
Youmi Lee, and Kihwan Nam
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 113 ~ 137
Keywords : Mobile-based service, Mobile banking, Credit card, SNS addiction, Impulsiveness
According to the clear potential of mobile banking growth, many studies related to this are being conducted, but in Korea, it is concentrated on the analysis of technical factors or consumers' intentions, behaviors, and satisfaction. In addition, even though it has a strong customer base of 20s, there are few studies that have been conducted specifically for this customer group. In order for mobile banking to take a leap forward, a strategy to secure various perspectives is needed not only through research on itself but also through research on external factors affecting mobile banking. Therefore, this study analyzes impulsiveness, credit card use, and SNS addiction among various external factors that can significantly affect mobile banking in their 20s.
This study examines whether the relationship between impulsiveness and mobile banking usage depends on whether or not a credit card is used, and checks whether a customer's impulsiveness is possible by examining whether a credit card is used. Based on this, it is possible to establish new standards for classification of marketing target groups of mobile banking. After finding out the static or unsuitable relationship between whether to use a credit card and impulsiveness, we want to indirectly predict the customer's impulsiveness through whether to use a credit card or not to use a credit card. It also verifies the mediating effect of SNS addiction in the relationship between impulsiveness and mobile banking usage.
For this analysis, the collected data were conducted according to research problems using the SPSS Statistics 25 program. The findings are as follows. First, positive urgency has been shown to have a significant static effect on mobile banking usage. Second, whether to use credit cards has shown moderating effects in the relationship between fraudulent urgency and mobile banking usage. Third, it has been shown that all subfactors of impulsiveness have significant static relationships with subfactors of SNS addiction. Fourth, it has been confirmed that the relationship between positive urgency, SNS addiction, and mobile banking usage has total effect and direct effect.
The first result means that mobile banking usage may be high if positive urgency is measured relatively high, even if the multi-dimensional impulsiveness scale is low. The second result indicates that mobile banking usage rates were not affected by the independent variable, negative urgency, but were found to have a significant static relationship with negative urgency when using credit cards. The third result means that SNS is likely to become addictive if lack of premeditation or lack of perseverance is high because it provides instant enjoyment and satisfaction as a mobile-based service. This also means that SNS can be used as an avoidance space for those with negative urgency, and as an emotional expression space for those with high positive urgency.
A Two-Stage Learning Method of CNN and K-means RGB Cluster for Sentiment Classification of Images
Jeongtae Kim, Eunbi Park, Kiwoong Han, Junghyun Lee, and Hong Joo Lee
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 139 ~ 156
Keywords : Sentiment Analysis of Image, Sense of Color, CNN, Two-stage learning
The biggest reason for using a deep learning model in image classification is that it is possible to consider the relationship between each region by extracting each region's features from the overall information of the image. However, the CNN model may not be suitable for emotional image data without the image's regional features. To solve the difficulty of classifying emotion images, many researchers each year propose a CNN-based architecture suitable for emotion images. Studies on the relationship between color and human emotion were also conducted, and results were derived that different emotions are induced according to color. In studies using deep learning, there have been studies that apply color information to image subtraction classification. The case where the image's color information is additionally used than the case where the classification model is trained with only the image improves the accuracy of classifying image emotions.
This study proposes two ways to increase the accuracy by incorporating the result value after the model classifies an image's emotion. Both methods improve accuracy by modifying the result value based on statistics using the color of the picture. When performing the test by finding the two-color combinations most distributed for all training data, the two-color combinations most distributed for each test data image were found. The result values were corrected according to the color combination distribution. This method weights the result value obtained after the model classifies an image's emotion by creating an expression based on the log function and the exponential function.
Emotion6, classified into six emotions, and Artphoto classified into eight categories were used for the image data. Densenet169, Mnasnet, Resnet101, Resnet152, and Vgg19 architectures were used for the CNN model, and the performance evaluation was compared before and after applying the two-stage learning to the CNN model.
Inspired by color psychology, which deals with the relationship between colors and emotions, when creating a model that classifies an image's sentiment, we studied how to improve accuracy by modifying the result values ​​based on color. Sixteen colors were used: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, purple, turquoise, pink, magenta, brown, gray, silver, gold, white, and black. It has meaning. Using Scikit-learn's Clustering, the seven colors that are primarily distributed in the image are checked. Then, the RGB coordinate values ​​of the colors from the image are compared with the RGB coordinate values ​​of the 16 colors presented in the above data. That is, it was converted to the closest color. Suppose three or more color combinations are selected. In that case, too many color combinations occur, resulting in a problem in which the distribution is scattered, so a situation fewer influences the result value. Therefore, to solve this problem, two-color combinations were found and weighted to the model. Before training, the most distributed color combinations were found for all training data images. The distribution of color combinations for each class was stored in a Python dictionary format to be used during testing. During the test, the two-color combinations that are most distributed for each test data image are found. After that, we checked how the color combinations were distributed in the training data and corrected the result. We devised several equations to weight the result value from the model based on the extracted color as described above.
The data set was randomly divided by 80:20, and the model was verified using 20% of the data as a test set. After splitting the remaining 80% of the data into five divisions to perform 5-fold cross-validation, the model was trained five times using different verification datasets. Finally, the performance was checked using the test dataset that was previously separated. Adam was used as the activation function, and the learning rate was set to 0.01. The training was performed as much as 20 epochs, and if the validation loss value did not decrease during five epochs of learning, the experiment was stopped. Early tapping was set to load the model with the best validation loss value. The classification accuracy was better when the extracted information using color properties was used together than the case using only the CNN architecture.
Conditional Generative Adversarial Network based Collaborative Filtering Recommendation System
Soyi Kang, and Kyung-shik Shin
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 157 ~ 173
Keywords : Recommendation System, Collaborative filtering, Oversampling, Deep learning, GAN
With the development of information technology, the amount of available information increases daily. However, having access to so much information makes it difficult for users to easily find the information they seek. Users want a visualized system that reduces information retrieval and learning time, saving them from personally reading and judging all available information. As a result, recommendation systems are an increasingly important technologies that are essential to the business.
Collaborative filtering is used in various fields with excellent performance because recommendations are made based on similar user interests and preferences. However, limitations do exist. Sparsity occurs when user-item preference information is insufficient, and is the main limitation of collaborative filtering. The evaluation value of the user item matrix may be distorted by the data depending on the popularity of the product, or there may be new users who have not yet evaluated the value. The lack of historical data to identify consumer preferences is referred to as data sparsity, and various methods have been studied to address these problems. However, most attempts to solve the sparsity problem are not optimal because they can only be applied when additional data such as users' personal information, social networks, or characteristics of items are included.
Another problem is that real-world score data are mostly biased to high scores, resulting in severe imbalances. One cause of this imbalance distribution is the purchasing bias, in which only users with high product ratings purchase products, so those with low ratings are less likely to purchase products and thus do not leave negative product reviews. Due to these characteristics, unlike most users' actual preferences, reviews by users who purchase products are more likely to be positive. Therefore, the actual rating data is over-learned in many classes with high incidence due to its biased characteristics, distorting the market. Applying collaborative filtering to these imbalanced data leads to poor recommendation performance due to excessive learning of biased classes.
Traditional oversampling techniques to address this problem are likely to cause overfitting because they repeat the same data, which acts as noise in learning, reducing recommendation performance. In addition, pre-processing methods for most existing data imbalance problems are designed and used for binary classes. Binary class imbalance techniques are difficult to apply to multi-class problems because they cannot model multi-class problems, such as objects at cross-class boundaries or objects overlapping multiple classes.
To solve this problem, research has been conducted to convert and apply multi-class problems to binary class problems. However, simplification of multi-class problems can cause potential classification errors when combined with the results of classifiers learned from other sub-problems, resulting in loss of important information about relationships beyond the selected items. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more effective methods to address multi-class imbalance problems.
We propose a collaborative filtering model using CGAN to generate realistic virtual data to populate the empty user-item matrix. Conditional vector y identify distributions for minority classes and generate data reflecting their characteristics. Collaborative filtering then maximizes the performance of the recommendation system via hyperparameter tuning. This process should improve the accuracy of the model by addressing the sparsity problem of collaborative filtering implementations while mitigating data imbalances arising from real data. Our model has superior recommendation performance over existing oversampling techniques and existing real-world data with data sparsity. SMOTE, Borderline SMOTE, SVM-SMOTE, ADASYN, and GAN were used as comparative models and we demonstrate the highest prediction accuracy on the RMSE and MAE evaluation scales. Through this study, oversampling based on deep learning will be able to further refine the performance of recommendation systems using actual data and be used to build business recommendation systems.
Label Embedding for Improving Classification Accuracy Using AutoEncoder with Skip-Connections
Museong Kim, and Namgyu Kim
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 175 ~ 197
Keywords : Deep Learning, Multi-Label Classification, Label Embedding, AutoEncoder, Skip-Connection
Recently, with the development of deep learning technology, research on unstructured data analysis is being actively conducted, and it is showing remarkable results in various fields such as classification, summary, and generation. Among various text analysis fields, text classification is the most widely used technology in academia and industry. Text classification includes binary class classification with one label among two classes, multi-class classification with one label among several classes, and multi-label classification with multiple labels among several classes. In particular, multi-label classification requires a different training method from binary class classification and multi-class classification because of the characteristic of having multiple labels. In addition, since the number of labels to be predicted increases as the number of labels and classes increases, there is a limitation in that performance improvement is difficult due to an increase in prediction difficulty.
To overcome these limitations, (i) compressing the initially given high-dimensional label space into a low-dimensional latent label space, (ii) after performing training to predict the compressed label, (iii) restoring the predicted label to the high-dimensional original label space, research on label embedding is being actively conducted. Typical label embedding techniques include Principal Label Space Transformation (PLST), Multi-Label Classification via Boolean Matrix Decomposition (MLC-BMaD), and Bayesian Multi-Label Compressed Sensing (BML-CS). However, since these techniques consider only the linear relationship between labels or compress the labels by random transformation, it is difficult to understand the non-linear relationship between labels, so there is a limitation in that it is not possible to create a latent label space sufficiently containing the information of the original label. Recently, there have been increasing attempts to improve performance by applying deep learning technology to label embedding. Label embedding using an autoencoder, a deep learning model that is effective for data compression and restoration, is representative. However, the traditional autoencoder-based label embedding has a limitation in that a large amount of information loss occurs when compressing a high-dimensional label space having a myriad of classes into a low-dimensional latent label space.
This can be found in the gradient loss problem that occurs in the backpropagation process of learning. To solve this problem, skip connection was devised, and by adding the input of the layer to the output to prevent gradient loss during backpropagation, efficient learning is possible even when the layer is deep. Skip connection is mainly used for image feature extraction in convolutional neural networks, but studies using skip connection in autoencoder or label embedding process are still lacking.
Therefore, in this study, we propose an autoencoder-based label embedding methodology in which skip connections are added to each of the encoder and decoder to form a low-dimensional latent label space that reflects the information of the high-dimensional label space well. In addition, the proposed methodology was applied to actual paper keywords to derive the high-dimensional keyword label space and the low-dimensional latent label space. Using this, we conducted an experiment to predict the compressed keyword vector existing in the latent label space from the paper abstract and to evaluate the multi-label classification by restoring the predicted keyword vector back to the original label space.
As a result, the accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score used as performance indicators showed far superior performance in multi-label classification based on the proposed methodology compared to traditional multi-label classification methods. This can be seen that the low-dimensional latent label space derived through the proposed methodology well reflected the information of the high-dimensional label space, which ultimately led to the improvement of the performance of the multi-label classification itself. In addition, the utility of the proposed methodology was identified by comparing the performance of the proposed methodology according to the domain characteristics and the number of dimensions of the latent label space.
Development of the Regulatory Impact Analysis Framework for the Convergence Industry: Case Study on Regulatory Issues by Emerging Industry
Hyelim Song, Bong-Goon Seo, and Sung-Min Cho
Vol. 27, No. 3, Page: 199 ~ 230
Keywords : Regulatory Improvement, Regulatory Impact Analysis, Regulatory Framework, Science and Technology Policy, Convergence Industry
Innovative new products and services are being launched through the convergence between heterogeneous industries, and social interest and investment in convergence industries such as AI, big data-based future cars, and robots are continuously increasing. However, in the process of commercialization of convergence new products and services, there are many cases where they do not conform to the existing regulatory and legal system, which causes many difficulties in companies launching their products and services into the market. In response to these industrial changes, the current government is promoting the improvement of existing regulatory mechanisms applied to the relevant industry along with the expansion of investment in new industries. This study, in these convergence industry trends, aimed to analysis the existing regulatory system that is an obstacle to market entry of innovative new products and services in order to preemptively predict regulatory issues that will arise in emerging industries. In addition, it was intended to establish a regulatory impact analysis system to evaluate adequacy and prepare improvement measures. The flow of this study is divided into three parts. In the first part, previous studies on regulatory impact analysis and evaluation systems are investigated. This was used as basic data for the development direction of the regulatory impact framework, indicators and items. In the second regulatory impact analysis framework development part, indicators and items are developed based on the previously investigated data, and these are applied to each stage of the framework. In the last part, a case study was presented to solve the regulatory issues faced by actual companies by applying the developed regulatory impact analysis framework. The case study included the autonomous/electric vehicle industry and the Internet of Things (IoT) industry, because it is one of the emerging industries that the Korean government is most interested in recently, and is judged to be most relevant to the realization of an intelligent information society. Specifically, the regulatory impact analysis framework proposed in this study consists of a total of five steps. The first step is to identify the industrial size of the target products and services, related policies, and regulatory issues. In the second stage, regulatory issues are discovered through review of regulatory improvement items for each stage of commercialization (planning, production, commercialization). In the next step, factors related to regulatory compliance costs are derived and costs incurred for existing regulatory compliance are calculated. In the fourth stage, an alternative is prepared by gathering opinions of the relevant industry and experts in the field, and the necessity, validity, and adequacy of the alternative are reviewed. Finally, in the final stage, the adopted alternatives are formulated so that they can be applied to the legislation, and the alternatives are reviewed by legal experts. The implications of this study are summarized as follows. From a theoretical point of view, it is meaningful in that it clearly presents a series of procedures for regulatory impact analysis as a framework. Although previous studies mainly discussed the importance and necessity of regulatory impact analysis, this study presented a systematic framework in consideration of the various factors required for regulatory impact analysis suggested by prior studies. From a practical point of view, this study has significance in that it was applied to actual regulatory issues based on the regulatory impact analysis framework proposed above. The results of this study show that proposals related to regulatory issues were submitted to government departments and finally the current law was revised, suggesting that the framework proposed in this study can be an effective way to resolve regulatory issues. It is expected that the regulatory impact analysis framework proposed in this study will be a meaningful guideline for technology policy researchers and policy makers in the future.

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